a branch of physiology

study of hormones and their functions. Endocrinology is subject to restore the original state experiments pioneered by A · A · Berthold (1849), the transplantation of the testis, the castrated cock. the


endocrinology (endocrinology), Research hormones, the branch of medicine that deals with treatment of disorders of the endocrine system and its diseases. endocrinology

1849 was first established by Charles Bell, Göttingen, Germany Todd (A · A · Berthold) published a paper entitled "testicle transplant, testis transplantation, castrated rooster recovery reinstated, he got to the conclusion that testicular organ transplantation, and does not depend on the local nerve, which can prove the testicular endocrine glands. In 1856, the famous French physician confirmed Brown - Fonseca (CEBrown-Sequard ,1817-1894), will lead to the death of the removal of the adrenal glands. 1859 by C. Bermard founded the concept of "internal environment" and endocrine. 1902 two British physiologist of Belize (W.M.Bayliss) and the history of Darling (E.H.Starling) animals duodenum endometrial adding acidic solution, and then injected into another mongrel dogs vein, the dog's pancreas secrete a large number of pancreatic juice, named secretin (secretin), they found between the different organs of the mutual regulation of chemical substances which carry blood. June 20, 1905, the history of Darling was first proposed in the British Royal Society of Medicine Crewe annual lecture (Croonian Lecture) speech hormones (hormone) a noun transliteration is "hormone", he mentioned in his speech : "persistent physiological needs of the organism, necessarily determines the continuous generation of this substance as well as in the systemic circulation." In In

1921, the the grid times Mainz University professor of pharmacology Otto (Otto Loewi) observed the frog heart's beating, first discovered neurohormonal, and found that the parasympathetic neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The main function of the organ for the synthesis and secretion of hormones

edit this paragraph, anatomy and physiology, endocrinology

called endocrine glands such as the pituitary, pineal, thyroid, adrenal, islet, gonads. Many organs, though not the endocrine glands. Tissues or cells containing endocrine function, such as the brain (within Philippians peptide, gastrin, releasing factor, etc.), liver (vascular tight plasminogen 25 hydroxylation osteogenesis steroids, etc.), kidney (renin, prostaglandins, 25 hydroxyalkyl osteogenic steroids, etc.), and the like. A hormone synthesized in different tissues or organs, such as longevity endostatin (hypothalamus, islets, gastrointestinal, etc.), polypeptide growth factors (nervous system, endothelial cells, platelets, etc.). Nervous system and the endocrine system physiology are closely related, such as the middle of the hypothalamus is the neuroendocrine tissue, synthetic antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin, and stored in the posterior pituitary along the axon. The elegant piece polypeptide only acting on the nervous system (which is the neurotransmitters nature), and the role of the pituitary gland (a hormone nature). Both in maintaining the stability of the body environment and affect each other and co-ordination, for example, to keep blood sugar stable mechanism, namely the role of endocrine hormones such as insulin, glucagon, growth hormone, somatostatin, adrenal corticosteroids , such as the participation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. So only in the nervous system and the endocrine system are normal, to make the environment for the body to maintain an optimal state.

edit this paragraph the hormonal regulation endocrinology

in order to maintain the balance between the main hormone of the body, the role of the central nervous system, a set of complex systems. Hormone is generally a relatively constant speed (such as thyroxine) or a certain rhythm (such as cortisol, sex hormone) release, physiological or pathological factors can affect the basis of sex hormone secretion, sensor monitoring and regulating hormone levels. Feedback regulation system is important self-regulating mechanism in the endocrine system, central nervous system through the hypothalamus, pituitary reach the peripheral glands play a physiological effect by target cells, any period are subject to positive or negative feedback regulation control.

edit this paragraph hormone transport peptide hormones in the circulation was free form, steroid hormones and thyroid hormones (except aldehyde steroid ketone) are combined with the high affinity of specific plasma protein, only a small amount (about 1-10%) was biological remains to live free state. This control can be combined with free ratio auxiliary adjusting gland function, which can adjust the biological activity, but also can adjust the half-life.

disciplines classification

of endocrinology

according pathogenesis, including abnormal endocrine glands, abnormal hormone secretion by the former hormone conversion exception abnormal reaction of the target cells to hormones, endocrine system diseases can be classified as follows;

hormone deficiency diseases (a) of the endocrine glands dysfunction destruction due to trauma, tumor, infection, bleeding, autoimmune damage caused by primary endocrine glands dysfunction of the hypothalamus or pituitary hormone deficiency, manifested as a target organ ( such as low thyroid, adrenal cortex and gonads) function, secondary endocrine dysfunction, congenital endocrine glands dysfunction often hormone synthesis disorders, even synthetic hormone structural abnormalities, the lack of biological activity, such as rare types of diabetes, the insulin level in the blood is higher than normal, but its amino acid disorganized, not biologically active. Congenital hormone synthesis partial barriers can be produced, and may be complete. The hormone deficiency

(b) secondary to extraglandular factors such as former hormone transition to hormone disorders, accelerate hormone degradation to appear antagonistic substances, such as corresponding antibodies.

(c) the reaction of the hormone is low, normal part of the endocrine glands dysfunction, blood hormone levels, or even high. This may be due to an anti-receptor antibody, closed receptor, the opportunity to reduce the hormone and the receptor binding. Also may be due to the receptor structural abnormalities or reduce the number of due. Such as pseudo hypoparathyroidism, plasma parathyroid hormone significantly increased, but significantly lower clinical parathyroid function, nephropathy may be insensitive to vasopressin, liver disease pancreatic glucagon of hypertension is not sensitive and so on.

hyperandrogenic syndrome the endocrinology

(a) high endocrine gland function may be due to various reasons gland hyperplasia or functional adenomas. This functional adenomas (including functional adenoma) are well differentiated. Gland hyperplasia usually caused by previous glands hyperthyroidism due to the so-called secondary endocrine hyperandrogenism.

(b) of atopic hormone-producing tumors because tumor cells can function independent secretion of hormones or hormone activity similar compounds, causing the corresponding clinical manifestations. By a single gene (ACTH, growth hormone, prolactin, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, gastrin, erythropoietin, etc.) and dual-gene (such as human chorionic gonadotropin, luteinizing hormone, promoting follicle cytochalasin etc.) abnormalities. While various ectodermal tumor cells can produce such exceptions are the biologically active substance, but mainly for the uptake of the amine precursors and decarboxylation (APUD), cells. More common in oat cell carcinoma of the lung, carcinoid, thymoma.

(c) iatrogenic hormone or its derivatives to more than a physiological dose treatment of diseases can cause the iatrogenic hyperandrogenism syndrome.

(d) the target tissue sensitivity to high rare, such as hyperthyroidism increased sensitivity to catecholamine receptors into some organizations, atrial fibrillation often the heart has been the abnormal changes.

(e) autoimmune disease autoimmune antibodies bind to the receptor, a hormone-like role in stimulating antibodies in the most common, such as Graves' disease can cause hyperthyroidism rare insulin receptor antibody clinical manifestations can appear similar hyperinsulinemia.

(f) secondary to systemic disease of hormone secretion, due to the Department of normal endocrine glands by excessive physiological or pathological stimuli. Such as liver cirrhosis with ascites, increased aldosterone in congestive heart failure, and nephrotic syndrome increased parathyroid hormone in uremia. glands syndrome of endocrinology


endocrine syndrome Department of 2 or more glands at the same time to the onset of the dysfunction of the disease, may be related to the immune disorder, including pancreatic islets, thyroid, adrenal, parathyroid, and gonads. Hyperplasia, adenoma, adenocarcinoma hyperthyroidism due was called multiple endocrine neoplasia. Generally divided into three types. MEN Ⅰ (Wermer syndrome) including parathyroid, pancreatic islets, pituitary, adrenal cortex and hyperthyroidism. MEN Ⅱ type (Sipple syndrome) including pheochromocytoma (distribution) may be bilateral and extra-adrenal medullary thyroid carcinoma and parathyroid hyperplasia. MEN Ⅲ type, including medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma and neuroma. Type 3 multi-family trunk mechanism is unknown etiology. The endocrine glands disease

four, not associated with hormone disorders

endocrine science

the non-functioning tumors, cancer, cysts, inflammation. endocrine diseases classified

general clinical narrowly defined as follows: the hypothalamic syndrome caused by

a, the hypothalamic disease

(a) the functional

(b) organic (tumor, inflammation, trauma, surgery, radiation, etc.)

, the pituitary disease

(a) the adenohypophysis disease

1. The hyperfunction gigantism, acromegaly, hyperprolactinemia and prolactinoma various disease groups, Cushing's disease and pituitary thyrotoxicosis.

2. Dysfunction, pituitary dwarfism, the adult pituitary hypothyroidism. the

(b) the pituitary tumor

(three) the the neurohypophysis disease

1. Diabetes insipidus

2. Inadequate pituitary secretion of antidiuretic hormone a polycythemia

(d) vacuoles the sella

three, the the thyroid disease

(a) of autoimmune thyroid disease

1. Hyperthyroidism

2. The simple goiter hypothyroidism

(b) (including the endemic goiter)

(c) the thyroiditis

(four) thyroid tumors the nodules

(e) thyroid congenital ectopic, endocrinology deformity

four , the parathyroid disease

(a) hyperparathyroidism

(b) the hypoparathyroidism

(c) pseudo, and pseudo hypoparathyroidism

five, adrenal disease

(a) cortex Disease

1. Chronic adrenal cortex hypofunction

(1) (Addison's disease and selective aldehyde steroid deficiency)

(2) acute (the renal glands crisis)

2. The adrenal cortex hyperthyroidism

(1) hypercortisolism (Cushing's syndrome)

(2) primary aldehyde steroids histiocytosis

(3) adrenogenital syndrome (congenital adrenal hyperplasia)

( 4) hybrid

(b) medullary disease pheochromocytoma

the the six, gastrointestinal the pancreatic islets disease

(a) Diabetes

(b) insulinoma (functional pancreatic β cell tumors)

(c) glucagon tumor

(d) gastrin the tumor (ZoIIinger-EIIison syndrome)

(e) vasodilatory intestinal peptide tumors (watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, non-the gastric acid syndrome)

(f) somatostatin the tumor

edit this paragraph related books the the book information endocrinology

title: endocrinology

of Author: LIAO

Press: People's Health Publishing House

Published: 2007

ISBN: 9787117087445

Folio: 16

pricing: the 288.00 yuan

Description "endocrinology" (2nd edition) ( up and down) 4 52 chapters, details commonly used in research and experimental diagnostic techniques of molecular endocrinology, endocrine imaging, endocrine pathology; discusses three hundred common and most rare cause of endocrine and metabolic diseases, pathogenesis, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment; system summarize Xiangya universities in the past 100 years of clinical experience and endocrine and metabolic diseases research, extensive collection of literature at home and abroad. edit

recommended endocrinology (2nd edition) (up and down) drawings 545, Table 442, more than sixty cases of clinical cases: detailed, extensive information, and novel information, as various types of medical personnel, graduate students, reference book for teachers and research workers.