contraception

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contraception (Contraception) is the application of scientific methods to make women not to conceive. Control three aspects of the reproductive process: 1. Produce inhibition of sperm and egg; 2. Prevent sperm and egg; 3 of the uterine environment is not conducive to sperm capacitation, survival, or unfit fertilized egg implantation and development. The common method of contraception: the use of birth control pills, condoms, diaphragms, rhythm method, coitus contraception, compressed urethra contraception, surgical contraception, and so on.

conception must have four conditions:

① The man can produce sound and activity of sperm and discharged into the woman's vagina.

② sperm into the vagina to maintain activity through the cervix and uterine cavity to reach the fallopian tubes and egg.

③ woman can be discharged healthy eggs, the egg into the fallopian tube, get the opportunity to join with sperm.

④ fertilized egg must be timely development into an embryo reaches the uterine cavity environment suitable for the growth of the embryo and the uterine cavity. To artificially suppress ovulation to prevent the combination of egg and sperm, or the fertilized egg can not be implanted in a womb and growth, to achieve the purpose of contraception.

various contraceptive methods have different advantages and disadvantages, depending on both men and women age, health status, how many of the children living habits.

people due to the choice of different methods [1]

① contraceptives.

② tool contraception.

③ other methods: such as the rhythm method, coitus interruptus method of contraception, the compression of the urethra contraception, contraceptive effect is not ideal, should not promote. Immunocontraception, ultrasound contraception, microwave of contraceptive and warm contraceptive method being studied. edit

inside this paragraph tubal ligation tubal and uterine connected to the outer end of the free is similar with ovarian egg run by the fallopian tube to the uterine cavity. The tubal ligation contraceptives

Tubal Ligation, blocking the egg channel leading to the uterus to reach women surgical permanent sterilization purposes. The procedure applies to those expectations may be permanent sterilization surgery contraindications adult women. Women only want temporary or reversible contraception does not apply to this surgery.

recent years, minimally invasive techniques generally begin to apply laparoscopic tubal ligation, the more and more popular, and compared to traditional surgery, injury, safety, quick recovery, the difference between the two lies:

1. Laparoscopic surgery poke holes into the abdominal cavity, is equipment expansion and preserve the basic integrity of the abdominal wall. Surgery based on cut abdominal muscles and the corresponding neurovascular injury, the postoperative incision around the skin will appear numb, thus becomes weak abdominal muscles scarring may occur incisional hernia.

2. Laparoscopic abdominal wall poke holes small (3-10mm range), dispersed and hidden, healing does not affect the appearance. We often see centipede like proliferation of scar surgical incision.

3. Traditional surgical incision infection or fat liquefaction, wound dehiscence, has been unable to avoid. Laparoscopic surgery is the best way to solve this problem.

edit this paragraph IUD 1. What is the IUD?

IUD is generally used the anticorrosive plastic or metal, some with some of the drugs (such as can be released from the female hormone or indomethacin, etc.). Uterine ring round, uterine shaped, T-shaped forms, doctors can select the appropriate IUD in the uterus of everyone.

2, placed IUD (intrauterine device)

Why can contraception it? change the intrauterine environment

uterine ring into the uterine cavity, causing uterine inflammation, to the detriment of embryo implantation, resulting in an early abortion, in order to achieve the purpose of contraception. The intrauterine contraceptive efficient is about 94 to 99%, second only to oral contraceptives, sterilization, skin bury surgery, condoms and injectable contraceptives.

3. What are the advantages, the use of intrauterine devices?

intrauterine device (IUD) is used as a non-permanent methods of contraception can be traced back to ancient times, but only in this century, the development of effective contraceptives are widely used in the world. Since 1968, Scott reported critical illness and death IUD related, nearly ten-year period, a large number of studies reported this method of contraception on the risk of the user, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), uterine perforation, different Bit pregnancy, commonly known as ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion or septic abortion is particularly important complications. The IUD is a long-acting contraceptive methods, valid for a period of one year to several years. Ring out the uterus by a doctor can get pregnant. Wearing a ring, do not have sexual intercourse before the any preparation. Women wear ring does not feel the presence of the IUD, and therefore suitable for the need for regular contraception for women.

4. What should not be used IUD?

genital malformations or tumors, dysmenorrhea, or excessive, pelvic inflammatory disease, gonorrhea and women with multiple sexual partners and severe anemia, heart disease, ectopic pregnancy history had not wearing the IUD. General doctors should decide whether it is appropriate.

5. When can we wearing the IUD?

basically just make sure no possibility of pregnancy by a doctor will be able to place the uterus ring. Usually two or three days after menstruation clean to wear the ring most suitable. In six to eight weeks, post-natal, post-natal check if the doctor thinks appropriate circumstances can wear a ring.

6. To place and remove the IUD is very complex and pain? the

placed and uteri ring is very simple. Disinfected by a doctor first, and then send ring intrauterine exit "to send the ring" and truncated Department of the uterine ring nylon line been placed into the uterus within. Just take the ring the traction ring-tailed nylon line or using the ring "ring dragged out of the uterus can. The placement and uteri ring usually only have a slight abdominal pain.

7. Immediately whether wearing intrauterine contraception?

Some women just placed intrauterine easy to wear a ring pregnancy, the doctor will guide the wear ring after one or two months plus topical contraceptive methods to ensure safe contraception.

8. Wearing IUD if you want to check on a regular basis?

to wear after the first menstrual cramps after a routine check. Then no special routine annual inspection.

9. What should be noted on the IUD? The women wearing ring of

early menstrual period may be extended for two to three days, by the amount may be slightly more. Some women may feel abdominal discomfort or abdominal pain during menstruation. This is the initial reaction adapt. Individual women appear to significantly increased by the amount of menstrual bleeding outside time, significant abdominal pain, and if these conditions persist should go back to the hospital for examination.

10. Wearing the IUD during unintended pregnancy how to do?

the IUD contraceptive still 3% of unintended pregnancies opportunity, if menstrual delay or suspected pregnant should ask the doctor to check.

11. Uterine ring when taken out?

different intrauterine deadline is not the same, ranging from three to eight years. Generally for about five years. Sheung Wan should save good the Sheung Wan medical file. On time in accordance with the doctor's orders to take the ring for the ring. Take the ring and commutative ring is most likely to become pregnant while using the other methods of contraception.

edit the contraceptive pill, why contraception? Contraceptives since the beginning with and topical categories. Within contraceptives main ingredient is a synthetic estrogen and progestin, according to the length of time of the contraceptive effect is further divided into three kinds of long-term, short-acting and fast-acting (relatives). Contraceptives is by inhibiting ovulation, the cervical mucus thickens, interfere with the development of endometrial change tubal motility, inhibit sperm capacitation, inhibit or kill sperm several links to work.

2, the kind of long-acting contraceptive needle

contraceptives containing estrogen and progestin compound acid progesterone and compound megestrol acetate. The first time were 5 and 10-12 days of the menstrual cycle, one injection, after each time the first 10 days of the menstrual cycle of a needle injection. Progestin-only injectable contraceptives, mainly acetic acid A progesterone (DMPA), the first five days of the menstrual cramps injected with a needle once every 3 months thereafter. About 2/3 of the women after the the pure progesterone needle use irregular bleeding. Can be used in lactating women.

short-acting contraceptives

taking simple, reliable contraceptive effect, harmless to humans and does not affect future fertility.

taking methods: general medication in the the menstrual cramps fifth day after dinner before going to bed, one a day, and even served 22 days without interruption. Medication a month, a month contraception.

relatives contraceptives

apply to relatives the object resided continuously for more than 10 days, and can be taken after intercourse, not menstrual cycle limit. Visit relatives more than two weeks may be diverted to contraceptive services. Take one

long-acting oral contraceptives

of the initial medication in the fifth day of the menstrual cramps lunch interval of 20 days served on the second, after the second medication days per month medication date, monthly service a. The contraceptive mechanism

3, before taking precautions select contraceptives, should go to the hospital for a physical examination to find out whether it is appropriate to use contraceptives. No matter what kind of birth control pills, should strictly be taken in accordance with the provisions of the specification, not free to change the way of taking and dose, otherwise it will affect the contraceptive effect. Contraceptives to be placed in a cool, dry place, with children at home, on the reach of children. The minority women taking birth control pills, there will be the reaction of nausea, vomiting, dizziness, short-acting contraceptives after dinner or before going to sleep clothing in

taking long-acting contraceptives on after lunch, can reduce the reaction.

medication during vaginal bleeding or 3 months to menstruation, should go to the hospital for a check to clear reason. The long-acting contraceptives is not sudden withdrawal, then after stopping taking short-acting contraceptives 2-3 menstrual cycle as a transition, in order to avoid irregular vaginal bleeding. Long-term use of contraceptives, women should regularly to the hospital for a checkup. Want to fertility, the drug should be discontinued six months after pregnancy, best in the six months after stopping using condoms contraception.

4, should not use contraceptives ① women suffering from acute and chronic hepatitis and nephritis, because contraceptives metabolism in the liver, and excreted by the kidneys.

② women suffering from heart disease with cardiac dysfunction, because contraceptives so that the body of water, sodium retention and increased the burden on the heart.

③ women who have high blood pressure can not use.

④ diabetes and family history of diabetes are advised not to use. women

⑤ hyperthyroidism, before there is no cure, it is best not to use.

⑥ benign breast tumor, uterine fibroids, as well as a variety of malignant tumors were unfit for use.

⑦ past or now suffering from vascular embolic disease, such as cerebral thrombosis, myocardial infarction, vasculitis patients can not use, so as not to aggravate the condition.

⑧ suffering from chronic headaches, especially migraine and vascular headache women should not use.

⑨ long-term use of contraceptives can endometrium was shrinking like, so over the past month after less by not the best.

⑩ contraceptives can reduce milk secretion, and reduce the quality of the milk; contraceptives can enter the milk, the adverse effects of neonatal and lactating women should not use. It is over 40 years of age or smoking women aged more than 35 years old should not be used.

5, not at the same time taking the women who are taking birth control pills, if the illness is also taking some other drugs, can accelerate the metabolism of contraceptives interfere with contraceptives, contraceptive failure. So far, are known to affect the contraceptive effect of drugs generally have the following: antibiotic ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, neomycin and erythromycin. Anti-TB drugs such as rifampicin. Anti-rheumatic drugs. Antiepileptic drugs and sedative phenytoin, primidone, Librium, Seconal and meprobamate so. Other drugs affect the contraceptive efficacy there sulfa drug, clotrimazole, insulin and furan Furadantin. Women who are taking birth control pills, the need to use these drugs, it is best to temporarily disable contraceptives, switch condoms, topical contraceptives and IUD contraceptive methods.

Edit this paragraph Norplant Norplant law? The Norplant contraceptive method is a new type of contraceptive method has been used around the world to promote.

this method of contraception is a certain dose of progesterone on the silicon capsule tube, then this pipe buried in the skin, to slowly release small amounts of progestin, which play a role in contraception. The introduction of such a contraceptive agent in 1984, first in Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Shenyang and other cities, the country has 15 provinces established subcutaneous implant clinical trials center, this surgery. According to relevant statistics, the pregnancy rate of only 0.1% within two years, three years, the pregnancy rate was 0.24%. implants

the Norplant contraceptive method used by pipe the six matchstick size of silicon capsule detachment capsule tube built L-18 A implants (also known as Norplant) 34 mg capsule tube embedded in the skin organization, immediately began to slowly release the pill, can play a role in contraception after 24 hours, the effective contraception 5 years.

Norplant agents inhibit ovulation by changing the viscosity of the cervical mucus to prevent sperm into the uterine cavity; inhibit endometrial growth, is not conducive to the implantation of a fertilized egg; role to achieve the purpose of contraception. The contraceptive

2, who for need long-term contraception for women under 40 years of age, as long as the health of this method can be used contraception, especially for women prone to failure in the use of birth control ring, women taking birth control pills on time and do neutered concerns of women. The

3, who are not suitable for use with severe anemia, hypertension, frequency onset headache, hyperthyroidism, breast cancer, diabetes, uterine fibroids, ovarian tumors, serious skin diseases such as hepatitis, nephritis, and ectopic pregnancy, a history of lactating women weighing more than 70 kg or are taking anti-epileptic drugs, anti-TB drugs for women are not suitable for the use of this method of contraception.

4, how to use Norplant surgery general within 7 days of the menstrual cramps or surgical abortion at the same time. Simple operation, make a small incision in the medial arm of contraception, using a special trocar six silicon capsules pipe. Incision push subcutaneous (fan-shaped arrangement), the surgery has thus concluded incision without suture, the entire The surgical operation can be completed within minutes.

a few days after local may have bruising, swelling, in which case no need to deal in a few days will go away. If the wound bleeding, infection or silicon capsule tube prolapse, seek medical attention immediately. 24 hours after surgery before sex.

buried a group of Silicon the capsule tube contraceptive five years, to remove. Such as the need to continue to use this method of contraception, can be re-buried in a set of silicon capsule tube; such as preparing fertility, the silicon capsule tube removed six months before planning a pregnancy, condoms can be used during this period, topical contraceptives contraception.

during Norplant agent contraception, such as the occurrence of amenorrhea, appeared irregular vaginal bleeding and lower abdominal pain should seek medical attention immediately check for pregnancy.

5. advantages. The Norplant contraceptive method has the following advantages:

(1) contraceptive effect, effective contraception rate of more than 99%.

(2) long contraceptive effect, once implanted contraceptive five years.

(3) small drug reaction, such a contraceptive agent only progesterone, excluding the estrogen, so fewer side effects than the oral contraceptives.

(4) reusable tube after removing the silicon capsule can quickly restore fertility.

6. The the Norplant method also has some disadvantages:

about 20% of the women in the initial period of the menstrual allowed prolonged menstrual period and by the blood increased menstrual imbalances; individual women there amenorrhea. Most of these phenomena can be gradually improved after six months.

edit this paragraph topical tools contraceptive 1. What is the topical contraceptive drugs

the topical contraceptive drugs is a chemical agent on the vagina near the cervix so sperm through the uterus and can not reach the fallopian tubes with the egg in the loss of activity here, so topical contraceptives also known as spermicide. topical contraceptives

a topical contraceptive suppository (lovers contraceptive suppository, the wife of the Friends of) contraceptive film (the Lele ether the topical emulsion side), the pill (the Le'an ether topical contraceptive pills) and Lele ethers jelly.

2. Topical contraceptive use the method

topical contraceptives mainly placed in the woman's vagina, near the cervix position. About 10 to 12 cm from the vaginal opening. Use the ointment, according to the instructions on the dose first injection pump, and then pump the ointment transvaginal injection cervix position, you can carry out sexual intercourse. Pump after use with soap and water Rinse and wipe dry. Left to the next use. Use a suppository, film, film to drugs by hand to be fed into the the vaginal depths of 10 to 12 cm, 10 to 15 minutes after the drug dissolved before intercourse. Creams should not be used alone as a contraceptive. The market is now disposable heart Coloplast liquid contraceptive cream, can be injected directly into the vagina, each about 4.2ml contraceptive effect up to 8 hours.

3. What are the advantages of

topical contraceptive drugs each time the room prior use topical contraceptive drugs, do not need a doctor's prescription or surgery, and therefore more flexible. The drug is not absorbed by the body, and therefore does not have any impact on the body. The low ratio of women infected with sexually transmitted diseases, the use of topical contraceptive drugs. The selection of condoms plus the use of these drugs can increase the contraceptive effect. IUD, oral contraceptives and contraceptive needle women began to be used within one month plus these drugs can also increase the contraceptive effect.

4. The use topical contraceptive drugs to pay attention to what

use of topical contraceptive drugs must each room prior proper use of human factors due to carelessness or misuse may lead to contraceptive failure. Suppository, film, film former, we must wait for the drug dissolved after intercourse. Each room in advance to be placed, if placed over one hour is not ejaculation or again intercourse to be re-placed. Intercourse when the woman should adopt the the supine (female upper or the upright drugs will reduce outflow from the vaginal contraceptive effect). The woman room after supine for 15 to 30 minutes. Room after six hours should not wash the vagina.

compared with other methods of contraception, the use of topical contraceptives have a higher risk of pregnancy, such as the use of the woman's menstrual expired, or when there is a problem must take into account the possibility of pregnancy.

individuals local mild irritation of drug allergy, the event should stop using the drugs.

edit this paragraph rhythm method 1. What is the natural contraceptive method

in in the first half of the menstrual cycle of the developmental stages of eggs in the ovaries, the ovarian secretion of estrogen, the uterine lining (endometrium), thickening of the cervix and vagina and breasts swell. Is subsequently ovulation, the release of a mature egg follicle in the ovary, the performance of the basal body temperature rise and changes in cervical mucus, follicles secreted progesterone; ovulation is able pregnancy. If the egg is not fertilized, progesterone reduce menstrual cramps and endometrial shedding. Natural contraception method, also known as the rhythm method or periodic abstinence; refers to avoid sex within each menstrual cycle, pregnancy ", as a means to prevent pregnancy.

2. How can you know your own pregnancy it can

to three detection methods.

Calendar section of the law: women must be continuous record of 6 to 12 months of the menstrual cycle, the longest and shortest cycle calculated for the starting date of the first day of the menstrual cramps. Abstinence phase can then calculate the pregnancy. Calculation methods such as:

first pregnancy, saying (pregnancy can begin) = shortest cycle minus 20 days

final gestational day (can be the end of pregnancy) = longest cycle minus 10 days;

such as a women's record in the shortest period of 26 days , the longest period of 31 days, the pregnancy :26-20 = 31-10 = 21, the woman can pregnancy (or unsafe Day) 6-21 days of their menstrual cycle. In the meantime, should be prohibited from sex or use another method of contraception.

body temperature method :: Women did not get up every morning after you wake up immediately before measuring body temperature, and recorded in a special temperature paper. 1-2 days after ovulation, the body temperature begins to rise. Therefore, the third day after the body temperature is elevated sex life should not be carried out in the first day of the menstrual cramps to three days to the next 10 days before menstruation intercourse safe period. cervical mucus method of

(Billings method): women through learning, learn to identify the various stages of the menstrual cycle, vaginal outside the mouth dry, moist and wet feeling. During the discharged mucus, to distinguish between different types of mucus; on a small amount of viscous secretions means estrogen levels rise, the large number of lubrication the mucus occurs at close to ovulation, with urination before the finger is removed from the vaginal opening the mucus to check the appearance of stretch confirmation. The third day after the mucus and mucus peak can during pregnancy, this approach requires the guidance of professionals and learn before being adopted, learn to recognize the mucus type usually one to three months. Usually should be integrated calendar section of the law, and body temperature method, the cervical mucus method, in order to more accurately calculate the time of the menstrual cycle can be pregnant, contraception would be better.

3. The appropriateness of using the natural method of contraception

this method is natural, does not require the use of apparatus, taking hormones or surgical operations. Apply to a religiously restrictions prohibit the use of artificial methods of contraception for women. Also applied to the use of other methods of contraception serious side effects and contraindications women. This method of contraception for women menstrual cycle more regular, the frequency of sex life more stable. The sexual partners relationship Peihemoqi, both partners have a long time to not intercourse consciousness.

4. Natural contraception whether the contraindications

natural contraception no known medical side effects. Whenever ability to observe, pregnancy symptoms, signs, or can not guarantee sexual partners of women with the records can not use this method. If women pregnancy taboo nor this method can be used.

5. Natural contraception efficiency whether high

the not! Natural contraception method projections can pregnancy of three ways will be subject to a lot of human factors. And women's ovulation is often influenced by the living environment, emotional, health or sex life changed, and sometimes there will be extra ovulation (ovulation) in the non-energy pregnancy. Natural contraception method is not very reliable.

6. How to save a topical contraceptive drugs

the are printed on the packaging of topical contraceptive drugs have an expiration date in the pick-up and the time of purchase to pay attention to whether or expired, the packaging is complete. Should be stored in the dark, cool and dry, the child can not contact. Ether topical piece, Guangzhou, being valid for a year and a half, topical the bolt and topical pellicles Tianjin production years.

edit this paragraph reasonable contraception: preferred condoms, sexual health, contraception is also key, unwed problem is very serious, must choose reasonable methods of contraception, both are wrong with the drugs, the rhythm, the condom is a very safe Some people say: "sex with condoms like raincoat bath", but in fact not the case, the development of science and technology, condoms also increasingly thin, because of its high safety factor, so more and more loved by unmarried cohabitants.

is the most commonly used method in the young, the biggest advantage is in no way interfere with women's physiology, but also to prevent sexually transmitted diseases, the biggest obstacle to insist on the use of sets of texture anyway improvements, there are still some people feel this film affects their best to enjoy sex. [2]

edit this paragraph contraception common Misunderstanding: The rhythm method is safe calibration: menstrual cycle, and that the role of contraception can be achieved by calculating the safe period. Most of the women's menstrual cycle time of 24-32 days, ovulation occurs in the first 12-18 days. 24 hours after ovulation if the egg is not fertilized, the egg itself death. Sperm after discharge, in general, within three days to fertilize an egg can, but there are also reports that the sex life one week after sperm fertilizing capacity remains. Experts pointed out that the so-called "rhythm" time is very short, the menstrual cycle for women 28 days, this "safe" time is only about one week. But also due to changes in climate, diet, emotions, environment, the ovulation time will fluctuate, and even additional ovulation rhythm method is not reliable.

Myth: occasional one-time life does not result in pregnancy: According to incomplete statistics, in the crowd of women, the most common cause is left to chance that the pregnancy is not so easy, occasionally one-time life chances of pregnancy is very low. The experts have warned that this is a very wrong view of every single life has a risk of pregnancy, avoid trusting to luck. women

Myth: has given birth to a child only on the ring: a lot of women think that has given birth to only ring a contraceptive method, women who suffer from uterine fibroids, irregular menstrual cycle, dysmenorrhea and other diseases are often not suitable for release ring, I feel there is no other alternative method. In fact, more alternative methods, including Sheung Wan, oral contraceptives (including long-term and short-acting), condom, liquid condom, injectables, implants, and sterilization.

Myth: put the president of the loop too long into the muscle wall of the uterus: the ring is placed in the uterine cavity, attached to the uterine lining, and not attached to the wall of the uterine muscle, endometrium every month off, discharged and regeneration IUD often is active neither fixed in the endometrium, more does not grow in the muscle layer of the uterus. Edit this paragraph ancient contraception a long, long time ago,

or primitive people, men and women in wondering how to birth control. The method they use is extremely dangerous, while most likely to no avail. Is not difficult to find, came into being with the development of civilization, the various methods of contraception.

However, a few ancient human invention contraceptives apparently proved to be very effective, for example, one has a 3500-year-old Egyptian papyrus, an ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics written on contraception prescription. The prescription wool cotton ball soaked with gum arabic, coconut and honey implanting in the woman's body to prevent pregnancy. Although this prescription is so old, but experiments show that it is very effective. Gede Hai said: "gum arabic contains lactic acid, which is a nature spermicide." Kiskiskis

In addition, some ancient contraceptive methods on the human body is full of danger, For example, the ancient people drink graphite or mercury methods to achieve the contraceptive effect, but this can easily lead to dangerous people were killed. In the 1930s, Westerners also invented a hexagonal small pieces of wood - a similar uterine sets "of things to prevent pregnant women, but this contraceptive was later known as the" torture women appliances. "

in museum collections, ancient people used the condoms made of sheep intestines, which apparently has been a bit closer to the prototype of the modern condom. The ancient Greeks and Romans in

all kinds of things into the woman's vagina. For example, a block of honey, cedar gum, even crocodile dung, elephant dung (elephant dung acidic can kill sperm). the

ancient Chinese and Japanese with silk oilpaper, rag group, sponge inside the female vagina as a barrier. Ancient Chinese fish fat for condoms, you can imagine, due to the different size of man dick, find a suitable fish fat is not easy