cardiovascular

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heart is a hollow muscular organ is located in the middle of the chest, by an interval, is divided into two left and right chamber, each chamber is divided into two parts of the atrium located in the upper part and the lower part of the ventricular. The atrial collected into the heart blood, ventricular ejection heart. Ventricular import and export valves ensure the one-way flow of blood. The Cardiovascular of

by the heart and blood vessels, blood vessels and arteries, veins, and capillaries. The heart

heart

(a) power organs, promote blood flow is divided into four chambers. I.e. the left and right atrium, left and right ventricle. Cardiovascular system [1]

(b) the arterial

(b) the artery

artery is the blood with the blood vessels of the heart. the

(3) Intravenous

venous blood back to the heart's blood vessels.

(d) capillary

capillary is connected between the artery and vein diameter blood vessels of the fine, the wall very thin.

edit this paragraph What is congenital heart during embryonic development (early pregnancy within 2-3 months), local anatomical abnormalities caused by obstacles due to the formation of the heart and great vessels, or should automatically close after birth channel failed closed (in the fetus is normal) of the heart, known as congenital heart disease. Beijing Dongcheng Chinese medicine hospital of heart disease [2]

Beijing Dongcheng Chinese medicine hospital [1] - whether patients with congenital heart disease can pregnant to? Kiskiskis

patients with congenital heart disease ability to conceive, and bear children, mainly depends on the strength of the heart function. , Two cardiac function insufficiency patients, little risk children; three cardiac dysfunction in patients, in principle, can pregnant. If the four heart failure patients, the absolute sterility, such as pregnancy, pregnancy should be terminated immediately. Because more than 30% increase in total blood circulation of the pregnant women, and pregnancy the uterus increases, forcing the diaphragm up, the heart to the left shift, affecting blood flow reflux increased the burden on the heart. Production, uterine contractions, maternal force, rapid heartbeat, abdominal pressure suddenly dropped after birth, placental blood circulation stops, so the maternal bloodstream huixin weight increase suddenly increase the burden on the heart, and prone to heart failure. The>> which heart attack patients are not pregnant? the Beijing Dongcheng Chinese medicine hospital

- congenital heart disease can be inherited?

addition, congenital heart disease is a polygenic disease, currently recognized, congenital heart disease may be caused by interaction of environmental factors and genetic factors, or both, especially the latter is important, approximately 90% of congenital heart disease caused by genetic plus environmental interaction.

with congenital heart disease in their own parents, and hope that the birth of a healthy child. So, in order to fully understand the impact of congenital heart disease on marriage and fertility, and the best way is to go to the hospital for pre-marital check and genetic counseling before marriage. Can also go to the heart disease specialist for a checkup, as do heart color B, listen to the doctor's recommendation, according to their type of heart disease, and genetic counseling.

prone to cause the fetus is suffering from congenital heart disease 11 the factors

addition to genetic factors, cause the congenital heart the reasons:

maternal:

1, maternal suffering from various diabetes, connective tissue diseases (such as systemic lupus erythematosus ), chronic alcoholism.

2, early pregnancy, viral infections, colds, fever history, medication history (amphetamine, Lundin, potassium chloride, three pairs of ketones, etc.).

3, early pregnancy exposure to radiation, mercury compounds, paint, pesticides, hair dye or taking anti-cancer drugs, chemical preparations.

4, virus infection: rubella virus (early pregnancy infection incidence of 90% in the mid-25%), the incidence of cytomegalovirus 1% to 2%, toxoplasmosis incidence of 1% to 2% of the human parvovirus B19 intrauterine infection, fetal death rate of 9%.

5, advanced maternal age (older than 35 years old), normal pregnancy, abortion, induction of labor history, family history of congenital heart disease, congenital heart disease, reproductive history. the

fetal factors:

6 fetus associated with other organ malformations: hydrocephalus, abdominal wall crack.

7, chromosomal abnormalities.

8, abnormal fetal heart rate: bradycardia (less than 120 beats/min), tachycardia (> 200 beats/min) and arrhythmia.

9, fetal hydrops: fetal subcutaneous body cavity effusion, pericardial effusion (chest, abdominal wall).

10, abnormal amniotic fluid: polyhydramnios or oligohydramnios.

11, intrauterine growth retardation. the

how to check out the fetus during pregnancy are suffering from congenital heart disease?

pregnancy B-, make screening of congenital heart disease. two weeks

embryonic development began to form primitive vascular three weeks to form the the original cardiovascular system and blood circulation, the 7-8 weeks atrial ventricular formation, fetal cardiac structures basically completed. So, in this period by the fetus outside any stimulus will affect the fetal cardiovascular development. Early fetal heart small section displays unclear; late fetal bone development posterior shadowing and fetal position fetal heart profiler affected. 20 weeks to 28 weeks for fetal echocardiography Figure exploration period.

fetal cardiovascular dysplasia a wide range of complex types, fetal echocardiography With the continuous progress of the ultrasound diagnostic equipment and staff accumulated experience and in-depth development of the research in this professional quickly, but there are still many of the fetal heart abnormalities can not be in production before detection, which is an objective fact. Maternal knowledge in this field should have a knowledge and understanding. I believe that with the development of medical technology, there will be more disease awareness, the fetal ultrasound diagnostic level is getting higher and higher, more and more popular in the development of the various regions of the country, China's birth rate of children with congenital heart disease will be effective control.

patients with congenital heart disease during pregnancy What precautions?

women suffering from heart disease before you plan to become pregnant, you should establish contact with the obstetrician; if a doctor determines that the patient can withstand pregnancy and childbirth, this link should work more closely. Heart disease, pregnant women in particular should pay attention to the following:

1, during pregnancy should have adequate rest: Daily at least 10 hours of rest time, noon least more than half an hour of rest. Poor cardiac function, cause after the general day-to-day work is not timely, should be some extended rest periods.

2, to avoid or timely treatment of anemia: heart disease, pregnant women have anemia, it will increase the burden on the heart, resulting in a vicious cycle, and prone to heart failure, it must actively prevent or treat anemia.

3, to prevent infection: any infections, including gum suppuration, upper respiratory tract infection, and should be treated as soon as possible, in order to reduce the incidence of bacterial endocarditis.

4, careful use of digitalis preparations: generally not used, except pregnant women, congestive heart failure, especially atrial fibrillation.

5, careful use of anticoagulants: the expectant mother had done prosthetic valve transplants, requires the use of anticoagulants, should pay more attention.

6, must do valvotomy: it is best to do before pregnancy, if you pregnant, you should first artificial termination of pregnancy before surgery better.

Edit this paragraph the blood circulation blood from the ventricle, the arteries, capillaries, veins return atrial cycle process, said the blood circulation. Is divided into the systemic circulation and the pulmonary circulation. the systemic capillaries artery branches at all levels →

circulation the way to the left ventricle → aorta → → all levels of vein branch → the master vein → inferior vena cava → right atrium.

pulmonary circulation pathway right ventricle to → the pulmonary → pulmonary artery branches → alveolar capillary network around → pulmonary vein branch → pulmonary veins → left atrium.

epinephrine and norepinephrine can activate the α and β receptor, but the ability to bind different. Adrenaline can be combined with the receptor α and β receptor, and are strong role. Noradrenaline in combination with an α receptor, can also be combined with the β1 receptors, but weakly with the β2 receptor binding ability. Receptor α and β receptor distribution in the heart and blood vessels are heterogeneous. Cardiac β1 receptors; dominant skin, kidney, spleen, stomach and other organs α receptor. Skeletal muscle, dry, dominant coronary vascular β2 receptor number. Therefore, the adrenaline can combine to make the heart rate and cardiac β1 receptors excitatory transmission speed up capacity strengthening myocardial contractility, increased cardiac output. Adrenaline vasoconstriction mainly α receptor, but mainly β2 receptor vasodilation, so little impact on the total peripheral resistance. Norepinephrine weak role of the β2 receptor, it is primarily the role of vascular alpha receptors, so the systemic vascular widely contraction, significantly increased total peripheral resistance and arterial blood pressure. Edit this paragraph of cardiovascular disease, heart in

main function is oxygen and removal of metabolites (such as carbon dioxide, etc.) to the body. In short, the heart is collected from the body hypoxic blood and pumps it into the lungs after full gas exchange, heart pumping oxygen-rich blood to the body tissues and organs to complete its function.

function of the heart every time cardiac diastole (relaxation filling the heart chamber blood) and systolic (heart chamber contraction to pump out blood). Two atria with the contraction and relaxation of both ventricles with systolic and diastolic, but the action of the atria and ventricles are not synchronized. The following of

talk briefly about the process of blood flow in the heart. First, from the body of the lack of oxygen and carbon dioxide-rich blood through the two largest vein (vena cava) reflux into the right atrium. When its filling, pushing the blood into the right ventricle. Then, after the pulmonary valve, the right ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary artery into the lungs. In the lungs, the blood flowing through the widely distributed in alveolar around the fine capillary bed, and with the gas within the alveolar gas exchange, to absorb oxygen and release carbon dioxide, the latter through the exhalation. Subsequently, these oxygen-rich blood through the pulmonary vein into the left atrium. Medicine circulation, the right heart - lung - the left atrium called the pulmonary circulation. When the left atrial filling, pushing these oxygen-rich blood into the left ventricle. Then, after the aortic valve to pump blood into the body's largest artery - the aorta. These will supply oxygen-rich blood to all organs and tissues outside of the body except the lungs.

. the heart of the inner surface Outlook

shows the cross-sectional view of the normal direction of blood flow in the heart. The rest of the

blood vessels of the circulatory system (cardiovascular system) by the arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules and veins. Strong and flexible arteries, which carry blood from the heart to the, and subjected to the highest blood pressure (BP). The resiliency of the arteries helps to maintain the blood pressure between the two beats. Smaller arteries and the muscular layer of the arterial wall can adjust their diameter to increase or decrease the blood flow to a region. Very small capillary wall very thin, it played the role of a bridge between the arteries and veins. Capillary wall allows oxygen and nutrients in the blood into the organization, and also allows metabolites within the tissue into the blood. Subsequently, the blood flows through the small veins, veins, and finally back to the heart. Due to the thin wall of the vein and is generally larger diameter than arterial, therefore, when the delivery of the same volume of blood, the velocity is slower, the pressure is also low.

blood supply to the myocardium of the heart also has to accept a small portion of the flow through the atrial and ventricular blood flow. A the arteriovenous system (coronary circulation) to provide oxygen-rich blood to the myocardium and hypoxic blood reflux back to the right atrium. Points to the heart of the left and right coronary arteries originated in the aorta. Under great pressure due to the contraction of the heart, so most of the blood in the diastolic flow through the coronary circulation.

edit this section of heart disease symptoms of heart disease is no single specific symptoms, just some of the symptoms can suggest the possibility of heart disease, but when several symptoms appear simultaneously, almost certainly the diagnosis can often be drawn. The doctor first diagnosed by medical history and physical examination. And by laboratory tests to confirm the diagnosis and assess the severity of the disease as well as to help develop a treatment plan (see section 15). However, sometimes serious heart disease patients, even in the late stages of the disease may have no symptoms. Routine health examination or treatment for other diseases also may not find these asymptomatic heart disease.

heart disease symptoms include: some type of chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, palpitations (often prompt bradycardia, faster or irregular), dizziness, syncope. However, these symptoms are not inevitable presence of heart disease. For example: chest pain may be prompted to heart disease, but may also occur in the respiratory disease and gastrointestinal disease.

pain myocardium can not obtain sufficient blood and oxygen (known as myocardial ischemia), and excessive accumulation of metabolites can cause cramps. Often say that angina is a chest myocardium can not get enough blood supply tightness or squeezing sensation. However, the type and extent of such pain or discomfort are great differences between different individuals,. Some patients with myocardial ischemia, may always not the onset of chest pain (known as occult myocardial ischemia) (see section 27).

other muscle tissue (gastrocnemius) can not get enough blood supply, patients often feel muscle tightness and fatigue during exercise pain (intermittent claudication) (see section 28).

pericarditis (inflammation of the heart around the cysts or injury) caused the pain often aggravated when the patient supine, sitting or leaning forward bit mitigate, the movement does not make the pain worse. Due to the possible presence of pleurisy, so breathing may aggravate or alleviate the patient's pain.

when arterial tear or rupture, the patient developed severe sharp pain, this pain come and gone and may be independent of the physical activity. Sometimes such lesions may occur in the aorta, especially aorta. Sudden leakage of the aortic excessive stretching or bulging part (aneurysm), or endometrial mild tear, leakage of blood into the aortic dissection. The damage can lead to sudden severe pain. The pain can occur in the back of the neck and shoulder area, lower back or abdomen.

the contraction of the left ventricle, located in the left atrium and left ventricle between a group of valves may be off to the left atrium (mitral valve prolapse) the patients sometimes there may be brief episodes of tingling, usually such a pain in the left milk, and has nothing to do with posture and activities. The

shortness of breath shortness of breath is a common symptom of heart failure, fluid leaking into the lung alveolar interstitium results, known as pulmonary congestion or pulmonary edema, similar to drowning. Early heart failure, shortness of breath in physical activity. With the aggravation of heart failure, with minimal activity occurred shortness of breath, until the resting state of shortness of breath. Supine liquid infiltration throughout the lungs, while standing standing gravity liquid are mainly distributed in the lungs at the bottom, so the heart failure patient supine shortness of breath or aggravate symptoms were relieved. Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea is shortness of breath occurs when the patient nighttime supine, standing relieve.

shortness of breath not only seen in heart disease, the risk of lung disease, respiratory muscle diseases and nervous system diseases that affect the respiratory process may also experience shortness of breath. Patients with shortness of breath, can be caused by any disease or condition that the oxygen supply and oxygen demand imbalance, such as anemia, blood oxygen carrying insufficiency or hyperthyroidism, excessive oxygen consumption.

fatigue when the decline in cardiac pumping ability, activities during the blood flow to the muscles is insufficient to meet the needs of patients often feel fatigue and burnout. These symptoms are often subtle, less likely to arouse the attention of the patient. Patients often to adapt to gradually reduce the amount of activity or performance attributed to aging.

palpitations usually, people do not feel their heartbeat. However, in certain circumstances, such as after strenuous activity, and even normal people will also aware of their own very strong, fast or irregular heartbeat. By pulse palpation or cardiac auscultation, the doctor can confirm these symptoms. Whether palpitations symptoms are abnormal, depending on the answers to the following questions: the presence or absence of incentives, sudden or gradual, heartbeat frequency, whether the arrhythmia, and its severity. Palpitations and other symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, weakness and fatigue, dizziness, a appear often suggestive of arrhythmias or other serious diseases exist.

dizziness and syncope due to abnormal heart rhythms, heart rhythm disorders or pump failure causes reduced output can cause dizziness and syncope (see section 23). These symptoms can also be caused by the brain or spinal cord disease, or even no serious cause. Soldiers as long standing leg muscle activity decreases affect the blood return to the heart, dizziness may occur. Intense mood swings or pain to stimulate the nervous system can lead to dizziness and fainting. A doctor must identify cardiac syncope and epilepsy, which is caused by diseases of the brain.

edit this paragraph cardiovascular disease with iron iron is an important element of the link hemoglobin-oxygen. In the lungs, the inhaled oxygen combined with erythrocytes, and then transported through the blood vessels to the respective organs. So, as an important part of the organization of the oxygen media, once the supply capacity to meet the demand, it will lead directly to the reduction of blood oxygen transport capacity or even disappear, serious harm to human health.

many cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are caused by high blood pressure. More than half of patients with hypertension are caused by lack of oxygen sleep. When normal people sleep, the blood pressure will gradually be reduced to the lowest level, but the anoxic sleep blood pressure rise, not fall. Sleep hypoxia can cause nerve sustained excitement, leading to high blood pressure, rapid heartbeat, so that patients with sudden onset of acute myocardial infarction, and even sudden death. Edit this paragraph cardiovascular disease

diagnostic ambulatory blood pressure monitoring ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, ABPM) is nearly 10 years of technology used in the clinical diagnosis and monitoring of hypertension, and help to understand the patients close to real life state blood pressure levels and circadian blood pressure variation and blood pressure medication reaction.

Holter monitoring technology can be 24 consecutive hours or 72 hours recording surface ECG in the daily life of the state, in recent years, widely used in clinical diagnosis of arrhythmia, screening for arrhythmic events in high-risk patients, evaluation of drugs or pacemaker therapy one important means. Secondly, you can also record to change the conventional echocardiography record is not easy to myocardial ischemia, a reference value for the diagnosis of coronary heart disease.

exercise stress test is a noninvasive means higher sensitivity and specificity of the clinical evaluation of known or suspected coronary artery. The trial combined with some specific inspection methods, such as exercise stress echocardiography the Figure, exercise myocardial perfusion imaging, such as development of inspection techniques to further improve the sensitivity and specificity of noninvasive means of diagnosis of coronary heart disease.

cardiovascular ultrasound the surface Doppler technology can provide valuable information in the detection of heart atrioventricular size, wall motion and blood flow velocity and heart function. Two-dimensional echocardiography in the diagnosis of congenital heart disease and valvular heart disease is the most convenient, safest and more reliable means of checking. In the past 10 years, pharmacological stress echocardiography the Figure and myocardial contrast echocardiography technology play an increasingly important role in the field of coronary artery disease. Radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging the technology

means of nuclear medicine examinations in recent years progress faster. Because the operation is simple, repeatable and sensitivity of the advantages of non-invasive, become important examination method for the diagnosis of coronary heart disease. Commonly used in clinical radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging, radionuclide blood pool imaging and radionuclide myocardial metabolic imaging technology. Positron emission computed tomography

(positron emission computed tomography, PET)

the technology is only with anatomic, functional, metabolic and receptor imaging technology known as molecular imaging or biochemical imaging technology. Clear location and extent of myocardial ischemia, the evaluation of myocardial viability and determination of coronary flow reserve. Application of the computer tomography technology

(CT)

CT, coronary imaging and cardiac three-dimensional reconstruction techniques, noninvasive imaging methods progress since 1998, the fastest. For the coronary arteries, the height of the narrow and negative predictive value is higher, in the coronary arteries, the highly narrow aspects of screening can be partially replaced by invasive coronary angiography. The MRIs

(MRI)

cardiovascular imaging research in recent years one of the hot spots. Myocardial infarction mainly used to evaluate the location and extent of viable myocardium and cardiac function to change the situation. Invasive examination techniques

1, a selective coronary angiography and left ventricular angiography

the recent years, become the means of examination and treatment of most patients Select Transradial selective coronary angiography and left ventricular angiography and interventional treatment.

2, intracoronary ultrasound and intracoronary Doppler blood flow measurement

intracoronary ultrasound can accurately distinguish the structure of the vessel wall, and both quantitative and qualitative diagnosis of coronary plaque. In recent years, the technology involved in guiding the choice of treatment strategy, evaluation interventional treatment and research intervention restenosis after percutaneous mechanisms play an important role.

intracoronary Doppler blood flow measurement for the evaluation of coronary flow reserve, directly reflect intracoronary hemodynamic function. the

3, of intracardiac electrophysiology checking technology

is a cardiac physiological and pathological electrical activity of the law of the present study and evaluation of cardiac autonomic excitability and conductivity most reliable means of checking, radiofrequency catheter ablation treatment of certain heart rhythm disorders provides guidance information.

cardiac markers Blood Center muscular flag material level increase is one of the important diagnostic criteria for acute myocardial infarction. The sensitivity and specificity of cardiac markers cardiac troponin (Cardiac Troponin, cTn), its area increased the amplitude of myocardial ischemic injury related, mainly used for the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, and risk stratification and prognosis. The nine kinds of effective prevention of cardiovascular diseases food

corn: corn rich in fat, the fat of the unsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic acid content of up to more than 60%. Contribute to the normal metabolism of body fat and cholesterol can reduce the deposition of cholesterol in the blood vessels, thereby softening arteries.

tomatoes: not only various vitamin content than apples, pears 24 times, but also vitamin rutin, it can improve the oxidative capacity to eliminate free radicals and body waste, protect the elasticity of blood vessels, preventing thrombosis role.

Apple: Apple is rich in the polysaccharide acid and flavonoids, potassium and vitamins E and C and other nutrients, the savings of the body can break down fat, delay and prevention of athero sclerosis attack. rich in fucoidin

kelp: kelp, kelp prime activity of such substances are similar to heparin, both to prevent thrombosis can drop cholesterol, lipoprotein, inhibit atherosclerosis.

tea: contains polyphenols, can improve the body's antioxidant capacity, lower blood lipids, ease hypercoagulability enhance red blood cell flexibility, relieve or delay atherosclerosis. Regular tea drinking can soften the arteries. garlic

: containing volatile capsaicin, can eliminate the accumulation of fat in the blood vessels in the significant lipid-lowering effects, medicine attending hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis.

Onion: contains a make vasodilatory prostaglandins A, it can be relaxing blood vessels, reduce blood viscosity, reduce the pressure of the blood vessels, onion also contains diallyl disulfide and sulfur-containing amino acids, can be enhanced fibrinolysis activity, lowering blood pressure, anti-atherogenic functions.

eggplant: cardiovascular protection, lowering blood pressure, eggplant contain rich vitamin P, flavonoids, soften blood vessels, but also to enhance the flexibility of blood vessels, reducing capillary permeability to prevent broken capillaries, prevent small blood vessels from bleeding to have a certain role.

Panax: can promote blood circulation, prevention of cardiovascular disease: Regular consumption can reduce cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood, can prevent high cholesterol, hypertension, stroke, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease The the good the health foods

protection cardiovascular note diet details

the drink a small glass of red wine a day

red wine can prevent heart coronary artery embolization, reduce platelet activity. A daily taste of a small glass of wine can make people 1.9 years younger, beer, wine. The scientists believe that the daily intake of a little alcohol can protect the heart. Daily snack the potassium foods

potassium ion, most vegetables and fruits, a few potatoes and bananas. American Medical experts believe that per day to eat two bananas and potatoes, will help to lower blood pressure, cardiovascular protection, myocardial infarction and cerebral haemorrhage are also less frequent. Eat foods containing vitamin E daily do

relevant institutions abroad to a survey, tens of thousands of elderly over the age of 67 in accordance with the the dietary standards developed by the Institute of International Year of Older meal to eat three times a day rich in vitamin E food. The results showed that the risk of heart disease, these people only those who do not follow the standard diet dining half. Daily eat the little fish

medical research shows that 4 times a week to eat fish, died of heart disease risk will be reduced by 44%. Medical experts on 2000 people of different ages up to 30 years of health observation, found that few residents living in the coastal risk of cardiovascular disease.

edit this paragraph cardiovascular disease prevention a cardiovascular system has many blood vessels, these vessels will be a wide variety of substances transported to every cell in your body. Among these substances are oxygen, fuel (glucose), building materials (amino acid). Vitamins and minerals. The tiny blood vessels called capillaries in the lungs absorb oxygen and expel carbon dioxide, so oxygen in our blood, and at the same time, the lungs of carbon dioxide were exhaled. These blood vessels are inserted into the heart, and the heart of the blood to squeeze each cell to the upper and lower body. At the various cells, blood vessels form a capillary network transports oxygen and other nutrients to the cells and took away the metabolic waste cells. Oxygen and glucose to body cells produce energy necessary substances; the cells metabolic waste is carbon dioxide and water.

cells provide nutrients and oxygen in the blood vessels called arteries, called venous away metabolic waste and carbon dioxide from the cells of the blood vessels. Arterial than venous blood to red, this is because the substance carries oxygen in the arterial blood is hemoglobin wherein it contains iron. The pressure in the artery than vein big. As all the blood from the cells back to the heart, all the blood go through the kidneys. Where metabolic wastes are removed from the blood vessels into the urine, and is stored in the bladder.

actually the name of the "heart" is not correct. Major life-threatening disease, arterial disease. Year after year, the artery walls began to form deposits. They are referred to as arterial plaque or atheroma. "Atherogenic" The word comes from the Greek word "congee (porridge)" word. The reason for this call is because arteries sediments with a thick porridge very similar. This arterial deposition phenomenon called arteriosclerosis, but only in certain parts of the body occurs. Suffering from arteriosclerosis, blood than normal blood viscosity and containing a clot, in their common role, arteries appear blocking, so that the blood flow interruption. If this occurs in the arteries that supplies the heart, that half of the heart, they are responsible for the supplies because of a lack of oxygen and die. This is called a myocardial infarction, or heart attack. In this occurs