Study cell chemical composition, morphology, structure and function of the subject in the light microscope level. The study of cell structure and function of the branch of biology disciplines. The basic unit cell is composed of the morphology and function of the organism, itself in turn, of many parts. On the study of the structure not only to know which part, but also to find out the composition of each part. Accordingly, the function must not only know the cell as a whole, but also to understand the relationship between various parts of the function.

organism's physiological functions, and all life phenomena are cell-based expression. Therefore, understanding the genetic, developmental and physiological functions of the organism, or as a medical-based pathology, pharmacology, and agricultural breeding, cytology are essential.

foundation stage

vast majority of cells are very small, beyond the limits of human vision. The cells were observed with a microscope. However, before the cells recognize the objective existence, but also do not know the object observed under the microscope cell. 1677 A.van Levine Hooke made the simple microscope observed the animals' sperm did not know that this is a cell. Cell (cell, from the original intent of the Latin cella 1667 R. Hooke observed cork slices see the cork with a small room named to the gap, a small room) word. In fact, the small room is not a living structure, but the gap posed by the cell wall, but the term of the cells thus been standing. Cytology in the Enlightenment period, with a simple microscope, although observed in many small objects - such as bacteria, ciliates, but the main purpose is to observe a number of developmental phenomena, such as a butterfly metamorphosis, sperm and egg structure. Due to the limitations of the microscope to observe is not precise enough, plus the shackles of religious belief, these observations bear

cytology (16)
If the contrary, supported the first into the theory dogma. Some people claim to see in the sperm of miniature "villain" that the resulting development of the future of the individual - the only fine commentators; some people think "villain" is present in the egg ─ ─ the only egg commentators. First into the impact of the theory has lasted 100 years, hindered R. Hook on the basis of the cells to learn more about, until 1827 К.M. Bell found that the eggs of mammals, careful observation of the cells themselves. No color developed in this around the objective lens, the introduction of carmine (carmine) and hematoxylin as the nucleus coloring dyes and slicer and slice technology start-ups, created favorable conditions for the finer observation of the cells.
for the study of cells has played a tremendous role in promoting the MJ Schleiden and the TAH Shi Wan. The former in 1838, described the cell is like a mucus-like parent material after a crystalline sample of the process to produce the first to produce the nuclear (also found that the nucleolus). And plants as a community of cells, like hydroids groups. In Shiwan Jian letter under his inspired move, the plants are composed of cells. He accumulated a large number of facts, pointing out that both consistency in the structure and growth, the cell theory in 1839. At the same time, the Czech animal physiologist JE Purkinje proposed the concept of protoplasm; German zoologist CTEvon, Siebold (1845) concluded that protozoa are unicellular. German pathologist RC of Fei Erxiao (1855), in the connective tissue on the basis of the saying "all cells come from cells", and the creation of cellular pathology. German zoologist, M. Schulze in 1861 on the cell under the definition: "A cell is a mass of protoplasm with all vital signs, the nucleus in which."
This stage can be said that the cytology of the foundation stage. The further development of cytology, the first is to deepen the understanding of cell structure. Must have a correct understanding of the structure before it can investigate their functions.

morphology study From the mid-19th century to the early 20th century, especially on the cell structure is the nucleus of research has made substantial progress.
Germany botanist EA 施特拉斯布格, 1875 First described in the plant cell coloring objects and concluded that the same species, each of which has a certain number of coloring objects; 1885 the German scholar C. La Buer coloring number of objects constant law. 1880 Bala Nieci Ji describes the spiral structure of the shader objects, the following year, Pfizer Cina found chromomere, officially named the chromosome until the 1888 W. Val Lauderdale, only then nuclear coloring objects. 1891, German scholar H. Henkin observed in germ cells of insects to the X chromosome, 1902 WL Stevens, EB Wilson discovered the Y chromosome.
cell division phenomenon, then, attention, and a careful analysis. In plants in 1867, German botanist W. Hofmeister, A. Schneider, 1873 in animals, respectively, a more detailed account of the indirect split; German cytologist W., Fu Leming 1882 the discovery of the chromosome longitudinal split after mitosis of the name in lieu of indirect split, E. describe Hoey Zell, the chromosomal distribution of indirect division; in his EA 施特拉斯布格 mitosis is divided into until now also generic early, middle, late, late; he and other scholars also plants observed in meiosis, and finally after further study the difference between haploid and diploid number of chromosomes.
cytoplasm, far inferior to the nucleus as thorough. German biologist O. Hertwig in 1875 found that the centrosome, but the evolution of mitosis through subsequent mitosis research before they can get a more detailed understanding. The Gorky found that he called Apparato reticulare interno (later known as the Golgi apparatus), construction (1895), before the advent of electron microscopy to whether it exists, has been controversial. Because this constructor is required in the cells after a certain amount of fixative fixed, and then silver or osmium tetroxide staining before, it was considered artifact; but the observation of living cells or the use of vital staining or frozen sections, a certain position in the secretory cells they are certainly able to see this structure. Mitochondria, since 1897, C. Benda discovered and named for its existence opinions. In some cells fixed by the fixative, can be certain dyes can also be observed in vivo to. However, its wide range of shape, or a linear or granular, or a bunch of particles under an optical microscope; As to the existence in animal cells or the cells of all organisms, was not conclusive.
know about the cytoplasm itself even worse. Although there are various theories, but they do not reflect the real situation. C. Frohman 1865 containing fibrous material woven into the framework or mesh. , 1882 W. Fu Leming wrongly see the mitochondria, spindle fibers, as well as fixed samples of other fibrous structures, by extension, that cytoplasmic filaments are buried in the matrix composition. R. Altman, 1886, German organization experts even believe that a certain amount of small particles is the easiest to live cells and organisms ", consisting of cells due to their special way of gathering; This could also be due to misidentification of the mitochondrial secretion and storage granules. Easier to be accepted by the 1888 German zoologist O. Bi Qili cellular or foam theory: cytoplasm (transparent quality hyalopla-sm) formed by the adhesive material of fine honeycomb structure, which is full of another substance called the cytosol (enchylema). This doctrine to a certain extent in line with the actual situation, because Biqi Li is not based on fixed specimens concept investigation, but according to protozoa in vivo observation proposed. Protozoa the cytoplasm of the sun, insects really foamy ─ ─ protozoan whether single cells has been debated for almost half a century, to be sure ─ ─ with foamy theory held until 1875 by the Bi Qili ciliates after the the longest.
on the structure of the cytoplasm should also be traced back to two situations. 1899 Garnier found in the study of various types of gland cells containing basophilic cytoplasm are dynamic filamentous or rod-like structure, that this is not a cytoplasmic inclusions, but the cytoplasmic part of, and thus named for the dynamic quality, and has done a detailed description. This is half a century later, under an electron microscope proved to be the real structure of the cytoplasm, the endoplasmic reticulum, but did not receive due attention. In 1902 Wei Late detailed description of the different animal stripes muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum, but also long been forgotten, until after the application of electron microscopy in 1960 to fully evaluate the accuracy of his observations.
understanding of the structure of cytoplasm lagged behind the understanding of the cell nucleus or chromosomes, in which case long-term is not improved. Especially the genetic phenomenon of the early 20th century, with the separation of the cytogenetic studies, restructuring, chain, exchange of chromosomal basis for more in-depth understanding of the chromosome. H. Bauer in 1933, Malpighi's duct cells of the mosquito chromosomes. 1934 TS Painter in Drosophila, RL gold HW Bimu Si, Chironomidae, also found that this construct. Chromosomes is a huge chromosomes in the Diptera larvae gland cells in Drosophila and its length is about 100 times the normal chromosome, each chromosome is composed of many articles (to 400) staining fibers, dyed deep with the area and stain light the room with the whole chromosome. Its formation is due to the nuclear mitosis (chromosome segregation and nuclear does not split), and thus each of chromosomes is actually formed by a number of chromosomes. This chromosome is large, the analysis of the fine structure of the chromosome. There is also the swelling bubble on the chromosomes, determine its functional activities. But at the same time, the cytoplasm, remove the combination of certain physiological functions of cell physiology it an understanding, the understanding of the structure does not make much progress. This case until the 1940s, electron microscopy has been widely used, specimens embedded, sectioned a gradual improvement of technology have a lot of change. Through a lot of work, not only to clarify the former can be seen under an optical microscope and not see, or still controversial organelles such as mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, centrosome, endoplasmic reticulum, cilia, flagella and other construction but also found that many had not seen the construction of such as the lysosome, peroxisome ribosome, a variety of fibers that make up the cytoskeleton, as well as high-voltage electron microscope to support from 1 to 10 angstroms thickness of the fiber a variety of cell micro-beam system, especially to see the various membrane of the cells. Under an optical microscope has never seen the cell membrane or nuclear membrane, just under the interface or physiological conditions to determine their presence in the electron microscope conclude that all of the membrane are 75 to 100 angstroms thick three-layer structure (called unit membrane). Not only that, one connected to each part of the cell membrane are connected to the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus or nuclear membrane. The nuclear membrane is double, the outer and inner layers of film composition, and has a certain structure of the nuclear pore, through which the substance of the cytoplasm and nuclear material to be exchanged. Also found a link between cells: desmosomes, tight junctions and gap junction in the plasma membrane. The exchange of material between the combination of these structures and cell or cell-related; the use of frozen etching techniques can better observe them.
20 to 30 years, the cytoplasm and cell morphology have a fairly in-depth understanding. Of course, in the era of the widely used electron microscopy, optical microscopy is still a powerful tool is indispensable. Such as the integrity of the cytoskeleton, is the use of fluorescent tour labeled antibody observed under an optical microscope.
In the meantime, the research progress of the nucleus is not very large. On the structure of the nucleolus have been an accurate description of chromatin, electron microscopy ultrathin sections can only see some coloring ideas ─ ─ chromatin is cut off section, do not see complete chromatin structure. Dispersed chromatin spreading method can only see the thickness and fiber. Until the 1970s, observed under an electron microscope to the nucleosome; Shortly thereafter, the combination of biochemical extraction observed in metaphase chromosomes based on so-called scaffold proteins as the core DNA fibers, the resulting ring stretch out to the surrounding. However, how chromatin condensate integrated chromosome, although there are different scenarios ─ ─ for example, was considered to be dyed fibers to spiral again and again (so-called super-helix), but the extent to which the actual situation, but also difficult to judge.


research in this area, a considerable extent driven by the other disciplines, generally can be divided into several stages according to the various disciplines, of course, these stages can not completely separate.
Embryology affect cell function, not like the study of the structure, as in a group of organizations to find a cell as an object of study. The egg is a cell can not get a single cell to the age of the study, the use of it is very convenient material. Since the eggs to study the role of the various parts of it of course to judge according to the impact on development. This involves the embryo issues. However, if the use of hybrid heterogeneous sperm nucleus function, you need to determine the emergence of heterogeneous traits, which relates to genetic problems. Early work in this area is basically carried out by the embryologist, which features a comprehensive study, not simply from the perspective of cell egg, but to take the egg cell research and development, genetic . Some of the major problems have been outlined, and thus have a profound impact on future academic ideology. O. Hertwig, and R.von Hertwig brothers in 1887 for sea urchin material, first to see the live egg fertilization, and experimental analysis of fertilization. Separately consider the role of the cytoplasm and nucleus in the developing, then the analysis of the chromatin reduction of the phenomenon found in a horse roundworm TH boveri, to prove the impact of the mitigation factors in the cytoplasm. In addition, the blastomeres numbered to keep track of the ins and outs of each blastomere cell lineages work on a variety of different egg yolk content of their cleavage type of research have pointed out that the distribution of the egg cytoplasm, influence the direction of the spindle, determine the formation of the cleavage plane to determine the cleavage type. Moreover, in some particularly suitable eggs can also see the formation of various organs of the substances in the egg already have a layout, cleavage after the split ball corresponding to the formation of organs. All of these tips, the nucleus is equivalent to the genetic potential, but in the future development through the interaction between the cytoplasm or cell under different regulation.
For a nucleus role also has a full valuation. Sea urchin eggs in 1887 the German experimental embryologist TH Beauvais two sperm, based on the distribution of the chromosome in each blastomere, as well as the development of each blastomere that all chromosomes are qualitatively different, the chromosome is personality. The use of sea urchin eggs, TH Morgan in 1896, artificial parthenogenesis ─ ─ egg without fertilization also can grow. The egg masses fertilized with a nucleus or heterogeneous sperm of cytoplasmic and nuclear in the developing larvae are observed to display the characteristics of the father. These show the importance of the nucleus. To sum up the achievements of the time, 1883 W. Lu, German embryologist, had to express this idea: "Not only the chromosomes, and various parts of each chromosome, for determining the individual's development, physiology and morphology may have been important." 1887 German zoologist A. Weismann germ plasm hypothesis. Although this hypothesis was later experimental studies to overthrow, but the decision proposed by the sub-hypothesis and the subsequent gene between certain intellectual links to be found.
to remove the impact of academic thought, to solve the problems of embryology, cytology important experimental methods, this is the tissue culture. U.S. embryologist RG Harrison founded in 1907, growth of nerve fibers in vitro and later American physiologist A. Karel take over, develop into specialized technical. After the 1930s has increasingly shown its importance today, not only the study of living cells, even in terms of many other disciplines is essential technology.
genetics of re-discovered in 1900 GJ Mendel's research achievements, genetics research has a strong impetus to the progress of cytology. American geneticist and embryologist TH Morgan Drosophila genetics, found occasional supercilious individual is always male; combination of existing knowledge on the sex chromosomes, explaining eyed male from the cells to explain genetic phenomenon, genetic factors may be located on the chromosome. Cytology and genetics linked to the concept of the quantitative and physiological genetics, cytology qualitative material and the concept of narrative gradually produce cytogenetics.
1920 American cytologist WS Sutton further pointed out the parallels between genetic and chromosomal behavior, necessarily mean that genetic factors located on the chromosome, and mentioned that if the two pairs of factors on the same chromosome, they may follow, or may not be in accordance with the Mendelian laws of inheritance, indicating that the concept of a chain to deepen the study of meiosis, especially chromosome pairing, chromosome exchange.
In addition, the discovery of radiation phenomena (X-ray, radium radiation, ultraviolet radiation), the temperature can cause fruit fly mutations, a high frequency of mutations is more conducive to the experimental study of the chromosome. Caused by radiation after various mutations, including gene translocation, inversion and deletion of basis can be found in the chromosome. Mutant and wild-type hybrid, and their offspring were statistically treated, and can calculate the chromosomal gene sequencing map.
multi-line chromosome findings open new ways of chromosomes. Conclude that the chromosomes is bold, the paired chromosomes, on the one hand, its structure and meticulous research, found a stain line chromomere adjacent chromomere gathered into bands, dyeing lines difficult to see, but if suitable for staining or can be seen under ultraviolet light they are not straight parallel arrangement, but a very loose spiral. The other hand, gene sequencing map on the chromosome based on linkage groups derived from the use of so-called salivary gland chromosome map of the methods and morphological coincide up; hybridization experiments and cell morphology observed can improve cross-checked, you can multi-line more specifically to see exactly on chromosome gene sequencing, each band actually contain more than one gene. Moreover, some mutations are due to position effect of genes such as the rod eye mutant (bar-eye) is the first in the more than chromosomes evidence.
looking for genetic material foundation for the promotion, study of chromosomes in the surface spread out, not only for genetic research materials, many other animal and plant species (some statistics there are about 12,000 species of vascular plants and 500 species of mammals), cell division (meiosis), chromosome behavior, chromosome maps have been studied. The same species in the genus the number of chromosomes is the same; in the same family as the species or number range of this genus is another case of a multiple of (polyploidy). Each chromosome of the same individual, at first glance seems no big difference, but upon closer inspection there are different, it can be accurate to say the number, shape and size of each chromosome in the chromosomes of a species and be able to number them line up. Chromosomes of different species can be compared closer relationship, and thus find the evolutionary relationships of the species; karyotype that closely related species, the number of chromosomes may be exactly the same, but may also very significant differences in the latter case after careful study of the total can find the original form, and derives the various forms. Already know that there are three kinds of mutations: polyploidy in plants, a chromosome break into several small or vice versa, several small chromosome set installed into a large and a chromosome doubling. These three mutations sometimes and subspecies and species formation. In addition, plant polyploidy research has led to the use of various methods, such as chemicals, temperature, radiation induced polyploidy to produce, and has application value in certain plants.
extensive study of sex chromosome morphology, but also for the male and female gender of the decision to find the basis of cytology. Some animals are XX, XY type, some ZZ, ZW type.
cell physiology, experimental methods to study the function of other parts of the cell, at this stage did not get satisfactory results. Microscope is less than the cell membrane, and only in accordance with the substance of the cytoplasm and the outside world to exchange the judgment of the permeability of its existence, as well as certain substances, in order to judge some of its functions. Generally to the fat-soluble substances easily enter cells, and have speculated that the cell membrane may be caused by the hole of the lipid or lipid composition. Have different molecular weight substances into the cells of difficulty ─ ─ molecular weight the more difficult to enter; speculate that the cell membrane as a filter layer, the hole to prevent macromolecules into cells. In addition, the basis of the electrolyte, such as positive ions and negative ions on the permeability of the cell, and the acidity of the cell's environment can affect the result, change the permeability of the positive and negative ions, the proposed charge hypothesis to explain the permeability of the cell is extremely complex process. The phagocytosis of solid particles through the simulation, such as amoeba chloroform droplets engulfed that this is due to the membrane surface tension of the surface have a greater adhesion to the surrounding environment, caused by adhesion of the cells of foreign bodies local changes in such a foreign body is swallowed.
these ideas, even when it seems, are passive in the permeability of cell membranes; But cells can also going against the diffusion gradient or concentration gradient initiative intake or discharge of certain substances. Therefore also envisaged the membrane process in need of energy, of great significance for these processes, but there was no information.
when the understanding of cellular respiration is mainly limited to food through the role of various enzymes to produce heat. Know of several enzymes in this process, for example, some dehydrogenase, oxidase, cytochrome a, c, b, and thus learned that the burning of food in the cell, not by a sudden oxidation of all the energy the form of heat release out, but by a small stage, step by step to obtain and use a small amount of energy. This process because of the many kinds of enzymes transfer oxygen to accept the hydrogen redox system added to the overall process of breathing in and be able to carry on, and fine adjustment.
other disciplines in the early 1940s, and technology to other disciplines have been used for cytological studies, opening up a new situation, the formation of some new areas. The first is the application of electron microscopy to produce ultra-microscopic morphology.
Belgian zoologist J. Bradley Xie, starting from the problems of embryology, the use of specific staining (Unna, Feulgen) of nucleic acid in the developing meaning. Almost at the same time, the Swedish biochemist TO Kasiposong based on a variety of substances of a certain wavelength of absorption, create cells UV spectrophotometer to detect the presence of proteins, DNA and RNA of these substances in the cell. If we say that the former staining can be done qualitatively, the latter absorption can be done quantitatively. Essentially caused by their work to the attention of the people on the role of nucleic acid in cell growth and differentiation. Developed on the basis of their work, cell chemistry, the chemical composition of the study cells, and morphological studies complement each other, some understanding of cell structure.
chromosomes analyzed and photographed under ultraviolet light that the chromomere and nucleolus contains DNA, contrary dyeing lines containing only a few or even none. Protease (possibly impure) digestion so that they dissolve, so had mistakenly believe that the staining line is composed of protein. Besides, also based on the UV absorption spectrum of precise determination of chromosomal paragraph (euchromatin and heterochromatin quality) the percentage of certain amino acids. Often the paragraphs of the chromatin appears to contain more high molecular weight protein of the globulin type, vary the chromatin paragraph contains more low molecular weight protein of the histone type.
1940s began to carry out the work of the biochemical aspects of the function of various parts of the cell, resulting in a biochemical cytology. The first to use the homogenate ─ ─ suitable solution to the cell machinery to grind ─ ─ differential centrifugation approach, with the exception of the nucleus inside out can also get a few mitochondria, microsomes and transparent quality. Learned that some of the material and the presence and distribution of the enzyme as well as certain metabolic processes in what parts of them separately. Isolated mitochondria, the electron microscope to measure their size and roughly understand the biochemical processes in this organelle, to recognize their importance for energy metabolism. Microsomes had been mistaken for is a kind of organelle. We later learned, this is the product of the separation conditions is a complex consisting of ribosomes and a small amount of endoplasmic reticulum. Nevertheless, mitochondrial and microsomal some studies have indicated that many of the basic biochemical processes in the cytoplasm rather than in the nucleus. This method combines in-depth morphological research has led to more and more profound understanding of the process of cell.
the application of radioisotopes for the study of metabolic processes in cells has opened up new avenues. Can accurately track the use of substances within the cell synthesis, transport, and storage objects from their incorporation. For example, using this method showed the phosphorus compounds than in mitosis, but in the interval, split shortly before the incorporation, and then was assigned to the sub-nucleus. Can be inferred from the results of these and other isotope, the functioning of some important material in the cells.
organization in the 1930s culture will have a larger development, but only in tissue culture, can not be cultured single cells of normal tissue, but not yet fully demonstrated its importance. Can study many of the problems in the overall (in situ) can not be studied using cultured cells, such as the relationship between cell nutrition, exercise, behavior, cell. Almost all kinds of organizations, including some invertebrates (squid, sea squirt, fruit fly, etc.) are trained. In a variety of cell culture conditions to grow from the tissue block, and its growth. Morphology can basically be divided into three types of epithelium, connective tissue and wandering cells (such as lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages). Sometimes cultured cells can not express the characteristics of the normal tissue in the organism, for example, if the medium containing enhanced surface-active substances, the ability of cells of various tissues can get swallowed. But they still maintain the unique nature and potential, because if you change the culture environment or shift back to the site of the original animals would still be as it was growth.
It is worth mentioning that the growth of fibroblasts in culture is also affected by the substrate. Under normal circumstances, they radially grow aimlessly from the tissue block. Under tension if the artificial medium in a certain direction, or artificial system out of the traces on the substrate, the cells will be along the direction of the tension along the traces of the growth out. This phenomenon may be used to explain the overall function of the connective tissue and tendon adaptation - they are always in the direction of tension, growth, differentiation.
It can be seen, the depth in the submicroscopic structure of cells using electron microscopy, and depth in terms of functionality in the application of biochemical techniques, has been in the cell biology ─ ─ ─ ─ formed to create the conditions to study the phenomenon of life of the cell at the molecular level. So, later, under the influence of molecular genetics and molecular biology excellent achievements, the new discipline of cell biology quickly formed.

cytology general link

a, spindle blockers (Spindle inhibitor,)
in the process of mitosis, with the formation of the spindle, the chromosomes are pulling together is difficult to observe its shape. Spindle formation is a balance between the viscosity of the cytoplasm and spindle components
this, change the viscosity of the cytoplasm can damage the spindle formation, so that the chromosomes evenly spread and chromosome constriction zone clearer.
spindle blockers in culture for colchicine, add the amount of colchicine before the termination of culture, dividing cells remain in the medium term, to get a lot of split phase for analysis purposes . Autumn
Narcissus hormone concentration range is wide, the general concentration of 0.05-0.8 μg/ml, for 2-4 hours before termination of culture. However, in practical work with the concentration and processing time to control the dyeing
body shrinkage. Colchicine action time is the longer, more blocked metaphase chromosomes more condensed and contraction, so depending on the laboratory experience.
Second, the hypotonic solution (hypotonic solution)
hypotonic osmotic pressure and ionic strength were lower than the solution of the cell physiological conditions, such as water, hypotonic sodium citrate or sodium chloride, glycerol phosphate potassium (0.65M), chlorine potassium chloride (0.075M)
The hypotonic effect depends on the the hypotonic chemical composition, the hypotonic temperature and processing time. Hypotonic treatment by virtue of the reverse osmosis role of cell expansion chromosome spreading, while allowing adhesion of the chromosome nuclear
Ren material spread out so that all chromosome morphology observed in a plane.
lab is generally used in 0.075M KCl hypotonic solution (specific situation depends on the actual operation, in view of the continuity and stability of the experiment, the laboratory using 0.35% KCl), its advantages: ① dyeclear outline of the
chromosome band characteristics can be dyeability, the dyeing time is short, ② for significantly with staining can be fully demonstrated.
hypotonic treatment 37 ° C ,15-25 minutes, the pre-experimental conditions prevail.
Third, the fixative
important features of the stationary phase is able to rapidly penetrate the cells, fixed and maintain chromosome structural integrity, but also to enhance the chromosome basophilic, excellent dyeing results.
pure fixative is generally difficult to achieve these requirements, two mixed fixative used in experiments. Carnoy First use of the methanol and acetic acid mixture known as Carnot's fixative
good effect of the fixative. Carnoy fixative (methanol: acetic acid = 3: l) of each use will be temporarily preparation for a long time to place the impact of fixed effects, fixed-time 15-24 minutes, refrigerator, room
temperature can be. If necessary, change the proportion of methanol and acetic acid, glacial acetic acid increase in the proportion that is conducive to cell expansion, chromosome spreading, but easily lead to cell rupture, chromosome loss.
Fourth, the drop-chip
drop-chip cell suspension from a certain height on the slide, lymphoblastoid cell membrane rupture, the chromosomes spread out. The slides are available borneol and dry films, the effects are good. Drops of tablets need to air dry.
five, Giemsa staining
of Giemsa dye is not a single dye, but azure, Yihong, a mixture of glycerol and methanol, liquid storage after preparation. In the conventional dyeing, not superior than the other dyes, but the banding technique
, but it is incomparable.
temporary preparation of Giemsa working solution before use, the concentration in the range of 2.5-10% (stock solution 2 were added pH7.4 phosphate buffer 10-40 copies). After staining, the chromatin red, nuclei are blue.


boil is caused by what the?

infection and skin dirty, scratches, high ambient temperature or lower the body resistance to infection-related. Boils can occur in any follicles of the skin area, often to the head, face, neck, armpits and buttocks so often by the friction of the parts is more common.

(a) causes

boil the pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus based, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, are also caused by the disease. Local and systemic skin's resistance to infection is reduced mainly due to Benbingfasheng, so infants, malnutrition, diabetes is a good risk of this disease. Dirty skin, skin abrasions, high ambient temperatures often lead to local infection such as the direct cause.

(B) the pathogenesis

bacteria invade the hair follicle and their sebaceous glands and sweat glands, in hair follicles and surrounding tissue multiply rapidly, producing toxins, causing local tissue degeneration, necrosis, and the center of the formation of boils, the performance of local congestion, exudation, induration. Aggregation of neutrophils to the damaged body tissue cells and bacteria to be destroyed, and he gradually necrosis and dissolution, the formation of abscesses in the dermis. Due to Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase contain toxins, so the formation of pus bolt, protruding outward. Swelling and induration clinically visible in the center of a yellow-white pus plug. This is Staphylococcus aureus infected lesion characteristics. Ulceration after discharge pus, abscess gradually by the new fibrous tissue repair and healing.


boil the early symptoms?

1. redness, swelling, heat, pain summary, cylindrical cone.

2. inflammation to the development of nodules increases, the pain intensified.

3. A few days later nodules central necrosis, abscess formation, dissolution, soft induration, pain relief, the central pus head most of the self-rupture, discharge pus, inflammation subsided recovery.

4. furuncle usually no obvious symptoms, but if the blood flow occurred in the rich parts of the body resistance weakened, it can cause discomfort, chills, fever, headache and loss of appetite and other symptoms of toxemia.

5. Facial Boil such as intracranial infection, facial swelling and severe, may be associated with chills, fever, headache, sinus infections and other embolization.

boil because of location, severity of different clinical manifestations may vary.

local swelling and pain sclerosis: no systemic symptoms of early disease and more, only infection redness, swelling, pain, range of not more than 2cm in diameter, small nodules gradually enlarged, as papules bulge. A few days later lesions extended about 3 ~ 5cm, nodules gradually softened, the center was white, a slight touch of the fluctuations; then ulceration pus, and the emergence of yellow-white pus plug. Pus bolt off, pus shed, the inflammation subsides and healing. There is no pus boil bolt (the so-called headless boil), since the collapse a bit late, need to find ways to promote its pus discharge (Figure 2 ).

fever, swollen lymph nodes: furuncle serious infection, the local area of ​​the lymph nodes, tenderness, and may be associated with body heat, and sometimes lymph node abscess formation.

nose, upper lip and around (called "dangerous triangle") of the surface boil, add or pushed in touch, the bacteria via the angular vein, ophthalmic vein into the brain, causing intracranial suppurative infection. At this point may have fever, headache, vomiting, consciousness disorders.

early follicular redness, swelling, heat, pain, induration. After the white purulent center, there is volatility. May be associated with systemic fever, elevated white blood cell count and differential count.


boil ate?

therapeutic side:

1. composed of: a single head of garlic, honey, 9 grams. Usage: pound evenly wrap the affected area.

2. consists of: single head of garlic amount. Usage: Peel and slice into 2 to 3 mm, with the first affected area with warm salt water when dry wash, and then sticking garlic, and gently massage the 10 to 20 minutes, 2 or 3 times a day, 2 3 There is no more. Indications: Boil, folliculitis. Note: In severe cases, such as local irritation may reduce the massage time, a serious condition should be added to serve anti-inflammatory drugs.

3 . composed of: tea 2 grams of dried honeysuckle 1 gram. Usage: boiling water 6 minutes after each meal drink in a cup. Indications: Boil, exogenous heat.

4. composed of: fresh Malan first 100 grams, the amount of liquor. Usage: Add a little salt before blindly smashed wine Ban Cheng paste, coating the surface of the skin furuncle carbuncle. Indications: furuncle, carbuncle.

5. Composition: rosin 10 grams of white wine. Usage: rosin research to fine tune white wine into a paste, resisting heat, wrap the affected area after dissolution, for the degree of responsibility to cover all of the above and then covered with wax paper and tape securely, to enhance efficacy, can drop a few drops of wine, rosin to keep moist. Indications: furuncle, carbuncle, folliculitis.

6. smashed topical papaya leaves, swollen boil carbuncle treatment drug.

7. fresh peach leaf, plug smashed the lesion, treatment of nasal furuncle.

8. rhizome or fresh banana leaves smashed Jiao Zhi, coating the surface of the skin, cure carbuncles, boils, swelling.

9. almond powder with sesame oil paint, heat treatment boil.

10. Purple cane coal deposit of the skin, powder, paint the affected area or sesame oil dressing, boil carbuncle treatment, stomatitis , eczema.

11. raw taro add a little salt, smashed drunk wrap the affected area twice a day replacement, bones can cure pain, swelling of unknown drugs, pediatric head hot boil, finger boil.

12. raw loofah (or leaf), smashed juice, coated surface of the skin, soak sore treatment days, yellow water sores, heat boils, urticaria .

13. mung bean sugar kelp: seaweed 60 grams, shredded, green beans, 150 grams, with the soup, add brown sugar to taste food. There Sedative, diuretic, soft-kin, Phlegm, scattered gall tumor effect. For hypertension, beriberi edema, neck lymphadenopathy, simple goiter, prickly heat boils hot summer day in children poison, phlegm cough embolism.

14. yi melon soup: melon (not peeled) 500-600 g, yi 50-100 grams of soup. Can be flavored with sugar or salt, on behalf of the tea used, heat, hot weather, diuretic, dehumidification effect. Drugs for Rush boils, eczema athlete's foot, yellow urine deficient.

15. Daozhi raw turnip, vinegar and rub the affected area transfer, heat treatment boil.

16. green beans 30 grams of powder, each 10 grams, water delivery service, boils cure breast swelling and pain.

17. failure to adopt the open rose 3 - 5 朵 wash, add water, two pregnant, suffering from a cup of low heat, ice sugar 30 grams, made of rose soup, until the temperature dose, to cure blood stasis amenorrhea, boils Chung pain, traumatic swelling and pain.

18. boils and pus ulceration of the skin sore or eczema, rinse with water, tea, allow the wound clean and promote healing.

19. a white sweet potato, peeled and chopped, smashed, can also be added with the same amount of fresh Houttuynia smashed, spreads in the affected area, apply to the local heating that line replace (about two three hours long), and even apply a few days more, boils cure mastitis.

20. soybeans amount, turn on the water immersed soft, add a little alum were smashed drunk, external surface of the skin, swollen boils boil treatment.

21. adzuki beans with water until soft, mash with water or vinegar, or honey or egg amount, into a paste, external surface of the skin, cure mumps, hot boil.

22. Kapok 30 - 50 grams of sugar amount, fry a bowl with water and drink two bowls and a half. Favorable moisture, heat effect. For enteritis, urethritis, eczema, summer boil embolism.

23. fresh buckwheat leaves 60 grams, Shuijianbi day one; or fried yellow noodles with the vinegar into a paste, applied to the lesion, sooner or later be replaced. Governance sore, swollen boils, erysipelas, mastitis, and swelling of unknown drugs.

appropriate patients to eat what?

1, edible grapes plus zinc salt or zinc, other foods such as soy, sunflower seeds, wheat bran, yeast, brown sugar and so on.

2, Yi Shi taste light, the cold food, such as Malan head, purslane, melon, red and white radish, bitter gourd, sponge gourd, mung bean, red bean, lily, chrysanthemum brain and celery.

patients unfit to eat what?

not eat ginger, pepper and other spicy foods , as well as mustard, yellow croaker, shrimp, crab, chicken head, goose, Zhu Tourou so fat objects.

should avoid fried foods and meat, edible oil cans.

data only refer to the specific, please ask a doctor.


how to prevent boils?

boil is born of acute suppurative superficial skin disorders, widely available health, children, young people more common. "Surgical management case" that: "boil persons, birth processes, floating red rootless feet, swollen found in the skin, only the width of an inch, there is less pain, a few days later Microsoft, thin peel, the beginning of the blue water, the latter from breaking the pus out of. "The disease occurs in the summer and autumn, protruding roots shallow, swelling potential limitations, lift the red pain, mostly in the range of about 3cm, easily swollen, easy to collapse, Yi Lian. Early can be divided into a head, without the first two kinds of general light and easy to cure the symptoms, so the saying goes, "no boil the size of a pus like." ;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; But also due to the formation of improper treatment or care "mole cricket boils," or repeated seizures, lack of disunion. Multiple furunculosis ", is difficult to cure.


boil precautions before treatment?

attention to the skin clean, timely replacement of underwear and avoid skin injuries, especially in the summer, to bathe, wash your hair, hair, changing clothes, nails, children in particular should pay attention. With honeysuckle and wild chrysanthemum Jiantang tea. Boil the surrounding skin should be kept clean and coated with 70% alcohol to prevent infection spread to nearby hair follicles.

boil Chinese medicine treatment methods

total boil caused by the toxic heat treatment to detoxify the basic principles.

A Differential Treatment:

1. Heat toxin Accumulation card: lesion processes, such as cone, burning pain, or fever, thirst, tongue pink, yellow fur, rapid pulse. Detoxification. Flavors disinfection decoction.

2. Shushi heat Melancholia: seen in summer and autumn, the affected area, such as agglomeration cone, single or multiple, burning pain, chest tightness, anorexia, deficient urination, red tongue, greasy or yellowish, veins slippery. Qingshu dampness, detoxification swelling. Qingshu Decoction.

3. Is virtual evil love cards: distributed in the body, local color dark red, pus scarce, one after another, delayed healing, with fever, irritability, thirst, or fatigue, limb soft, red tongue thin yellow, rapid pulse. Righting detoxification. Liu Wei Di Huang Decoction.

Second, external treatment and other treatment:

1. The beginning of detoxification should be swelling, moderate to henbane, water reconcile, wrap the affected area. Or wishful golden powder for external application. Or green cream Waicha.

2. Pus, the clip bolt out the pus.

3. Unhealed after the collapse, sores can be a little ninety-one Dan to drugs or drug line twist into sores, topical berberine gauze.

4. Oral Meihuadianshe Dan, Niuhuangjiedu, Fang Feng Tong Sheng Wan, Liushen other medicine.

5. Unilateral prescription: Silver Flower 30g, licorice 10g, decoction, on behalf of the tea.

Western boil treatment

1. Local treatment, such as heat, physical therapy, 10% ichthyol coated ointment. Facial Boil should rest in bed should not squeeze or prick Boil, so as not to spread to the brain.

2. Swelling or have a large range of obvious symptoms, should give systemic antibiotics (third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics).

3. The formation of abscess, incision and drainage should be timely but should be avoided Boil the face cut.

(a) treatment

1. The principles of early treatment to promote inflammation subsided, after early drain purulent pus; timely elimination of systemic adverse reactions.

2. Local treatment

(1) Physical therapy: early, ultraviolet micro-irradiation, can promote local anti-inflammatory, to prevent proliferation. Swelling stage, the selection of FM, infrared and other heat, promote Boil liquid. 2 to 3 times / d, 20 ~ 30min / times.

(2) Drug eraser: 0.5% povidone-iodine scrub, the drug not only for skin irritation, and the role of long-lasting, no pigmentation. Can also be used erythromycin, tetracycline ointment.

(3) topical cream: local swelling and a small pustules, use ichthyol, wishful golden powder, Gyokuro powder and so on.

(4) incision and drainage: Boil into pus, nodules soften, a sense of volatility, you can make a small incision drainage or fire needle drainage. Taboo squeeze purulent lesions.

(5) to keep local clean and dry: adhere to local skin cleaning, daily showers are the best conditions. Young children with skin, topical lip after taking a bath in summer, to avoid the formation of multiple Boil.

3. Systemic treatment usually does not require systemic treatment of boils. But facial boils or accompanied by chills, fever, headache, general malaise, etc., should be given antibiotics. Clinical observations and experimental results show that the efficacy of penicillin, cephalothin, cefazolin and amikacin better effect.

(B) the prognosis

generally good prognosis after active treatment, without sequelae.


boil should be how?

1. Peripheral blood

(1) white blood cell count: fever, elevated WBC count may have.

(2) white blood cell count: white blood cell count was elevated often accompanied by increased neutrophils .

2. diabetes check

(1) fasting plasma glucose measurement: two fasting blood glucose were increased, should consider the possibility of diabetes.

(2) glycated serum protein: This clinical trial is not the impact of fluctuations in blood glucose higher than normal to help the diagnosis of diabetes.

(3) glycosylated hemoglobin: glycosylated hemoglobin and blood glucose were positively correlated, and the irreversible reaction. Diabetes is often higher than the normal 2 to 3 times.

3. bacteriologic

(1) bacterial culture: the multiple, repeated infections, abscesses can be extracted directly pus for bacterial culture, positive results will help the diagnosis of pathogens.

(2) drug susceptibility testing: bacterial culture in the pus, while line drug susceptibility testing can provide the scientific basis of clinical drug treatment.


boil diseases easily confused?

1. Multiple sweat gland abscesses are summer disease, more common in infants and young children and frail mother's head, forehead, etc .. Lesions of multiple subcutaneous abscesses. Surface tenderness, inflammation lighter. No pus bolt, left scars. Usually accompanied by a lot of prickly heat. Generally known as prickly heat poison. It was also known as pseudo furunculosis (Pseudofurunculosis).

2. Hidradenitis suppurativa common in young women, lesions of the skin induration. Subcutaneous abscess formation, followed by skin redness, swelling, heat, pain, ulceration scarring. Lesions occur in the armpits, groin, genital and perianal, umbilical, etc.

3. acne acne mild infection, red, swollen, painful, but the disease is small, the top a little bit like creamy.

4. sebaceous cysts sebaceous cyst infection are redness, swelling, pain, but the previous round has been painless mass over an extended period , the epidermis as usual.

5. carbuncle carbuncle with redness, swelling, pain, but there are several hair follicle infection, lesions larger than the boil.


hump-related diseases

juvenile osteochondrosis of vertebral osteoporosis youth sexual hump sore scoliosis ankylosing spondylitis vitamin D deficiency disease

more back symptoms

small blisters appear back back pain back spasms, back pain does not have subtle linen spine back pain sinus pain Road with sensory ataxia spinal nerve root damage spinal cord hemisection syndrome, spinal cord lesions of hemorrhagic infiltration of the spinal cord injury spinal cord infarction, cauda equina involvement across the spinal cord within the spinal cord gliosis in the spinal cord anterior horn of the spinal cord lesion cavity formed spinal thalamic tract compression