go

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[Intro]

Go originated in ancient China, is a strategic two board games, using the grid-shaped board and black and white two-color pieces for chess. Go popular in the Asia-Pacific region, covering world-wide, is a very popular board games.


Introduction Chinese: Go
Japanese: Tong Acer (pronounced yigo)
Korean: Xian
Pinyin: wéiqí (also China advocated English translation)pawn and wood

Go
board

English: Go (from the Japanese pronunciation), weiqi the game of go, or the chess of go (weiqi with more common, is our country to promote the English translation) can be translated as "Japanese chess Japanese chess.
Go is an intellectual game, originated in China. The legend began to spread when the Yellow Emperor, to the Han Dynasty rules in general stereotypes. Japan and South Korea are the three pillars of today's Go, but in recent years, Japanese chess gradually weakened, the formation of the rivalry of China and South Korea.
At present, the biggest problem facing the chess rules are not uniform, an international organization of unified management, faces enormous difficulties in the promotion process. Chinese chess rules are a number of sub-law, chess rules in Japan and South Korea, chess rules, the number of France, Taiwan Ying's Go rules (Ying's rules) and Chi Yun Go rules (rules of the World Mind Sports Games Go) used a total points system. A game of chess with the results calculated by the three rules are generally the same. Despite international open a number of chess rules seminar, but all parties adhere to their own country Go rules the best, do not do any concessions on the issue of non-principled (such as: board size, time, venue provisions ) has some unified, the real problem (Go outcome calculation) there is no progress. The nature of chess is: who covers an area of ​​large wins. But "to" has not a definition can be accepted in the world - China rules "sub-space are" rules Japan and South Korea is the only head to "'s rules, is the subspace are" (with Mainland China rules difference: Chinese Mainland rules calculate the outcome of unilateral, were compared with the disk in the number of 180.5; Ying's rules for White and Black Points subtraction, where the "point" is in fact the Chinese rule, said the "child" is call is not the same.)
Ancient Go and modern chess dismount is basically the same, but the essential difference is that the (specific study reference " chess rules of the Evolution " Chenzu Yuan, Yan to users article): the ancient chess to the child more than the winner (Reference the Dunhuang chess by "), Tang and Song dynasties the number of road law (Reference lotus - Music " Japan rules that the resulting change to) the number of empty eye position, excluding the public gas, Ming and Qing number of sub-rule also moves head (eye position is not a child, the rule later Repeal) to be deducted; other differences: first, the ancient chess in general white first black; ancient Go komi, Black 181 sub-win; ancient Go transposon system, is first in the diagonal horoscope to put black and white two sons, the maximum limit upper hand advantages (and later the Japanese abolished, in order to limit the upper hand to increase the Komi).
Go rules are very simple, but has a very broad the Lazi space, can enhance a person's computing power, creativity, thinking skills, ability to judge, but also can improve people's attention and control. Go under the intellectual development of children and adolescents to play a positive role to enable them to better analyze things. Go there if they had 19 lines, a total of 361 cross-points. Is because first-hand there are 361 kinds of options, the secondary has 360 kinds of choice ... a total of 3 ^ 361 possible (refer to Shen Kuo Meng Xi Bi Tan "), and thus, Go is the only computer not chess, the strongest Computer Go 13 level. Go varied, but also set ...... so, Go is more complex chess. China is the hometown of Go, chess master, such as: Coulee, Zhou Heyang, Chang Hao, Nie Weiping, The Go Master ......

origin the four ancient Chinese art: the piano, chess , books, painting, chess, refers to the Go.
"Road History Postscript" said Yao wife Fu Yi's, gave birth to her son Danjuma. The Danjuma behavior is not good, Yao to fenshui coast,

Go


See Immortals sit Chui Hui, program sand Road, in black and white ranks, such as array graph. The emperor asked the art of the whole Danjuma, a fairy said: "Danjuma good contention and stupid when the match up in order to free their feelings." Refers to the sand tract stones: "what we called Yi Ping, Yiming Go, the Council quiet, chess circle and moving, this play world of law, self-reliance, the Bank has no solution. " Danjuma Go by Yao at the school, said to really have to grow. (Cents, then see the ancient gods Chronicle ") was also said that Shun Go to teach the stupid sub-suppliers are. According to this view, manufacturing chess, in order to develop smart, the purity of love. Tang dynasty Pi Rixiu in a text of the original chess think that chess began in the Warring States Period, the creation of the political strategists who. Go is a "harmful pseudo-fraud contention of the Road"! Every single pawn on behalf of a sitting city, the board on behalf of land, a pawn between the lines represent the Guan Dao, the Go is between the two countries competing for the strategic chess game. Necessary intellectual qualities of the political strategists in the Spring and Autumn Period. In the pottery of the late primitive society unearthed in Gansu Yongchang County, mandarin duck pond, painted black, red, or even color stripe pattern and uniform lines. Criss-cross, neat grid, shape, much like the Go disk, but the vertical and horizontal lines only ten to 12 Tao, instead of nineteen. Archaeologists call it a distinctive pattern of the board.

legend

According to legend, the ancient period Yao Pingyang quell Concord tribe Fang,

Go Photo Gallery (19)
agricultural production and people's lives showing the prosperity during that scene. One thing that allows the Emperor Yao was worried about the San Yi's children Danjuma grown up, a teenager, but much work, idle, gather friends clamor of First Instance of relentless fighting, and often provoke scourge. Big Yu Zhiping flood soon, Danjuma boarded wooden people pushing swinging through the lakes of the Fen River in the West Bank, is pleased to rice attend to eat, at home and not returning to the words of the mother is not listening to . San Yi's Yao, said: Yao ah, you are only busy dealing with people, big, son Danjuma more and more outrageous, you do not pipe the future, how you doing big things ah! "Emperor Yao silent a long time, heart think: make good Danjuma normalized, we must first steady their sexual entertainment of their heart, to teach him to learn a few skills the job. Will be scattered Yi's, said: "You Danjuma people to get it back, let him bring the bow and arrow to the flat top of the hill up waiting for me."Then Danjuma is the Fenhe Beach and the group of people playing in the water
Suddenly the father of several guards, Burongfenshuo, strong pull on Hirayama, bows and arrows into his hands and said to him, : "thy Father God and mother tell you to come to the mountains to hunt, you can be fitted to the parents." Danjuma thought: I did not learn archery skills, a quick hunt it? Danjuma to see the mountain thorns preserved everywhere, hope blank cloud blossoming, and the Danjuma blinked his eyes, said: "The hare ran fast, the birds fly high, this mountain, rabbit, no birds in the sky and told me to play Han. the common people to listen to your words, land mountains and rivers also good governance, which the son for the father of Emperor worry about it. "Emperor Yao a Danjuma say so do not think progress, unintentional rule the industry, with a sigh, said:" You do not want to learn to hunt, the school attendance line soldiers battle stone chess, stone chess learned the usefulness of a mile. "the Danjuma listen to the Father Emperor not tell him to hunt, and switched to the next stone chess heart a little turn and stone chess is not easy to do? sit down for a while learned. "Danjuma throw away the arrows, the father to teach him. Emperor Yao said: "How can overnight be able to learn something, as long as you are willing to learn on the line." Then pick up the arrow to crouch down arrow on a flat slope rocks hard depicts aspect dozen Road lattice, so that the guards have picked up a lot of rocks sub-divided into to Danjuma half of the hand to proceed will be led by tribal campaign how to use the stones to go forward and backward combat strategy to impart to explain to the Danjuma. Danjuma down at this time also would listen, appears to have patience. Until the sun to go down when Yao, teach the child to play chess or that kind of dedication. Champions urging his son was under the Hirayama care Shuiquan wash my face back to Binh Duong capital city. the

Go


After that period of time, the Danjuma learn chess is to concentrate on, not to the outside hanging around San Yi's minds are at ease. Emperor Yao said San Yi's: stone chess contains deep governance of the people, army, mountains and rivers of the truth, Danjuma really change their mind and understand these principles, to take my throne, is a natural thing. "Unexpectedly chess not Danjuma learn deep and thoroughly, but listen to the previously ill of those people think that chess is too bound people, freedom, have brainer committed before doing it all day, friends kinky raw non-or even Want to trick to win the parent of the location of the Emperor, San Yi's distressed and was seriously ill, unhappy and eventually died. Yao, but also very sad, and moved to Danjuma sent to the South, do not want to see Danjuma also throne demise to after his three years of rigorous inspection that not only virtuous and talented intellectual of Yu Shun. The Yushun learn Emperor Yao like to teach the child to use the stone chess. Later pottery have given rise to the Go box of the graphics, the history books will have "Yao made chess to teach Danjuma records. This Dragon Temple Heung Jin palm Village Western Hills will be the board Ling Go stone graphics ruins.

development

status Go is a treasure of traditional culture of the Han nationality, reflecting the intellectual pursuit of the Han nationality, the ancients often poetry and painting " address the individual's talents and accomplishments, "Chess" refers to the Go. Go metaphor for the people the image to black and white world, is a favorite pastime of the ancients athletic activities, is also the oldest chess play in the history of mankind. Go science, art and athletic of the three blends, the development of intelligence, training will quality and the characteristics of a flexible strategy and tactics ideology, therefore, for thousands of years enduring and gradually developed into an international culture of athletic activities.
Go in ancient China known as the Yi, it can be said in the ancient chess is chess originator, according to legend, more than 4000 years of history. According to "The World" said, Go Yao had made. Jin Zhanghua also said: "Natural History" Shun-commerce are stupid, pretending to go to teach the "Shun is a legendary figure of Go made it credible, but it reflects the early Go origin.

Spring and Autumn and Warring States period

Go in the community are widely spread. "Zuo Xianggong twenty-five years" has been documented in such a thing, of BC, 559 years, Weiguo the monarch offered Patriotic large Funing colonization such as expulsion. Later, rather colonization son promised to Wei Xian public welcome to come back. The sub-criticism said: "Ning's have a disaster, Yi indecisive, to cope with their coupling conditions set Jun Frydman given almost?" "Indecisive," Go in the terms of such a metaphor for political indecision, indicating chess activities in At that time the community has become a people accustomed to see things.

Qin, Han, Three Kingdoms period

Qinmie six countries dominate the world, Go activities rarely recorded. Xijing, Volume III, had the Western Han Dynasty, "Duling the Davidoff child good chess world"

poem on the Go


account, but such records also very few stars, that was the development of chess is still relatively slow. To the Eastern Han Dynasty, society or Hiroyuki world chess alone must "situation. Until the late Eastern Han Dynasty, chess events before they became widespread. Archaeologists hope are One in Hebei Eastern Han Dynasty in 1952, found a stone chess set, the chess game was a square plate under the four-legged, the situation aspect of each 17 provides for the shape of the Han and Wei Period chess set The image of the kind of information. Go the war has also become an important tool to train military personnel in order to contact with a few hundred years between the frequent wars in the Han and Wei. Eastern Han Dynasty horse and into two enemy "Go Fu in will go as a small battlefield, Go under as military forces combat the" three feet of the Bureau of Xi, for the battle field; Chen Jushi Death Come considerable. "At that time many well-known military home, like the Three Kingdoms, Cao Cao, Sun Ce, Lu Xun and other battlefields are a draw the best on the chessboard so that the size of the two battlefields. One of the famous "build the Seven - the charm, in addition to the outside world Focused masterpiece, at the same time a chess expert. It is said that he has a remarkable memory, the disc on the Go, the law is clear in the chest, can the concept through the Bureau bad "moves, re-assumed a rather good one son. Our Go system took place in the history of two important changes, mainly the increase is the Bureau of Road. Wei before and after the first period of significant changes. Wei Handan Chun Art by, "said Wei, Jin and the former chess game aspect seventeen, or two hundred eighty-nine, white, black pawn, one hundred and fifty. This is described in the previous Hebei hope found in the Eastern Han Go Bureau Bureau system is exactly the same. However, the Northern and Southern Dynasties period found in the Mogao Grottoes in Dunhuang, Gansu Province Shishi "move by" but stated the time of the chess chess game "Three hundred 60 together with the degree of imitation Zhou that this time have been popular 19 Go. Go reflect the market has taken with the existing Go custom with the chess game shape exactly the same.

Southern and Northern Dynasties

due to the emergence of the Northern and Southern Dynasties Metaphysics, leading literati are proud to still talk, thus chess much more vigorous, under the Go is called "hand talk". Upper rulers no indecent good chess official chess set, a "Qipin system, and chess quite a" character "(grade) on a certain level of" dan ", granted. Of chess is divided into Nine, "Appreciative Liu Yun Biography" contains: "Emperor Wu a good chess set chess Yun products, dengue two hundred seventy-eight, showing that chess activities in general. Japanese Go into the "Kudan" that stems from this. SUI

period

19 board instead of the 17 board, from 19 the board into the mainstream. With Suidi Guo external policy, Koguryo, Silla Baiji Go brought to the Korean Peninsula, Sui Go brought to Japan.

Tang, Song and Yuan Dynasties

Tang and Song dynasties, can be regarded as the Go entertainment occurred in the history of the second major change period. Favorite of emperors and other reasons, go get a rapid development of games on the wind throughout the country. When Go is not only because of its military value, but mainly cultivates the mind, heart and soul, and wisdom. Chess and playing the piano, writing poetry, painting has been cited as the elegance of the matter, men, women and children safe recreation entertainment. Unearthed in Tang Tombs in Turpan, Xinjiang Astana No. 187 Ladies chess diagram "silk painting is depicting the image of aristocratic women's chess chess situation. Time chess game with 19 as the main shape, Go child has been in the past square to round. Sui Dynasty, Zhang Sheng, Anyang, Henan tomb unearthed in 1959, the porcelain chess set in the Tang Dynasty to Japan the reading of filial piety, the House position of in Japan, now in the possession of ivory inlaid clamp wooden chess set, are vertical and horizontal 19. The China Sports Museum of Tang Dynasty, black and white circular Go son, Huai Yang Gong Zuo, Song Dynasty tomb unearthed 50 black and white circular pawn reflect the changes and developments of this period, Go. The Tang Dynasty "Chess Official Titles system to implement a new landmark in the history of the development of Chinese chess. Official Titles of the so-called chess, Tang Imperial Academy specifically accompany the emperor playing chess professional chess player. At that time, dedicated to the inner court of the chess Official Titles are after strict examination from a large number of players selected. They have a first-class chess, it is "national champion," said. Famous chess Official Titles of the Tang Dynasty, Emperor when the king plot salary, Wang Shuwen, when Dezong care division when the Emperor Xuānzong the Speaking Tang Xinzong slippery energy. Expand the impact of chess chess implementation of Official Titles system, improve the social status of the players. System of the Tang dynasty to the Southern Song Dynasty lasted 500 years, played an important role in promoting the development of China's Go. From the beginning of the Tang Dynasty, the prosperity Go with the Chinese and foreign cultural exchanges, gradually beyond the door. First, Japan, on removal of the Tang missions to Go back, Go spread quickly in Japan. Not only the emergence of many chess Nade, and the production of the chess pieces, chess game is also very elegant. The Emperor Xuānzong Dazhong, 2002 (848 years) to Tang Rugong Japanese prince brought the chess game is pulling Yu Zhuo made, while the pawn is set true on the island hand to talk about the pool awkeotsang made. In addition to the Baiji in Japan, Korean Peninsula, Korea, Silla with Chinese contacts, especially Silla repeatedly sent envoys to the Tang Go exchanges is commonplace. "New Book of Tang Dong Yi Biography" chronicles the chess master in Tang Dynasty Yang quarter eagle and Silla player games on the case, when Silla Go have a certain level.

Ming and Qing Dynasties

Ming and Qing dynasties, chess level has been rapidly improved. Their performance to one genre flared up. Zhengde of the Ming Dynasty, Jiajing, the formation of the three famous chess schools: First, to Martin (the Yongjia people) for the crown, Lee Chong, Zhou Yuan, Xu Xisheng attached Yongjia send; First in Cheng Ruliang (Xinan) for the crown. Wang Shu Fang Ziqian accompanying Xin'an sent; first to send Yan Lun, Lee, autoclave (Beijing) for the crown of the capital. Three factions with different styles, the layout of the offensive and defensive different emphasis, but are hand-held. Their driven, long-term for scholar monopoly Go, began in the public sectors of developed and emerged in a number of "Lane Villain" players. Through frequent civil competitions, Go entertainment further gained popularity. With the rise of the Go entertainment activities, some folk chess family compiled by Go spectrum in large numbers, such as "suitable situation was recorded," Shishi cents Machine, "ternary diagram chess", "penny machine Arsenal" and "chess history "Yi asked more than 20 kinds of next version of the chess spectrum are existing valuable writings, from which you can get a glimpse of the development of chess skills and the level of theory. The absorption of the Manchu rulers of the Han culture and the promotion of the Go entertainment activities have been highly developed in the Qing Dynasty, Nade giving birth to chess Court unprecedentedly prosperous. Early Qing Dynasty, a group of hand-held, over Parkland, grand, Wurui Cheng Zhu for the most. Especially over Parkland "written by four sub-spectrum," Volumes I and II, changes in the Ming Dynasty the old spectrum of the book method, carefully push illustrates to make its meaning, as a masterpiece. Early Kangxi late Jiaqing chess school flourished, chess emerged a large number of masters. Which Liang Wei today, Cheng Lan such as, the fancies screen, Shi Xiang Xia four were known as the "four". Four, Liang Wei, the playing style is changing Kit Kat, and gained a lot of it after Shi Xiang Xia and fancies screen. Shi, Fan duo are Zhejiang Haining and fame with the juvenile, known as "Haichang two wonderful". It is said that in the 30-year-old Shi Xiang Xia, the fancies screen 31 at the age of two games on the lake, the 10 Board at war, the outcome is quite "When the lake Bureaux under the soul-stirring, the subtlety of the ancient.

the past, modern

In modern times, Go in Japan booming Chinese Go gradually catch up with Japan, the late Qing Dynasty, have a certain gap between Chinese players and Japanese players. After the founding of New China, Marshal Chen Yi is also a chess enthusiast, vigorously develop China's chess career, a new generation of chess national team has grown up in new China. On behalf of Chen Zude, Nie Weiping, Ma Xiaochun, Chang Hao. In the late 1980s, Nie Weiping in Sino-Japanese Challenge race has created eight game unbeaten record, the first three Challenge Cup victory, also vast land set off a craze of the new Go learning.
Now, go the main show, South Korea, Japan Three Kingdoms situation. Japan in the World Series due to rest on its laurels, underachievement, now showing in the Korean confrontation. chess rules of

modern rules

Chapter I General Provisions
the first Go chess
First, the board
disk aspect of nineteen equidistant vertical cross parallel lines, constitute a total of 19 × 19 = 361 cross-points (hereinafter referred to as "points"). The of several

Go chess


small dot on the disc. Called a horoscope, a total of nine horoscope, the horoscope of the Central Committee, also known as the "Tianyuan".
two, the pieces
pawn black color. Are flat round. Pawn in the number of sunspots 181, 180 is appropriate Shirako.the second the article Go dismount
First, the game, both sides armed with the same color chess pieces, black after the first white, alternately erupted in a time of the next child.
Second, a pawn under the board points.
Third, after the chess pieces made up, shall move to the other.
Fourth, in turn erupted in the rights of the parties, but allows any party to give up erupted in the right.
the third pawn of gas
a pawn on a chessboard, with its straight line close to the null point is this piece of "gas". Pawn in a straight line close to the point, if the pawn of the same color, they will be interconnected into an indivisible whole. Angry with them should also be calculated Heterochromatic pawn pawn in a straight line close to the point, this feeling would cease to exist. If all of the gas are the other side occupied, it was airless state. Pawn airless state can not exist on the board, that is, Article IV - grapes.the Article raisins

means of airless son of disk called "grapes".
grapes there are two kinds:
First, erupted after the other side pawn gas, should be immediately extracted.
erupted after both chess pieces were tested airless state, should be immediately extract the other side of airless child.
unplug the opponent a pawn, is forbidden points (for banned points)
The fifth article ban point
any one child on board, such as a party erupted after the child immediately was airless state, while not extract each other's pieces, this point, called the ban with the point "to prohibit the party was put erupted.
prohibited by Article global reproduction of the same shape
Article finality
First, no single officer or other official midnight, shall be final.
Second, the game in one half-way to admit defeat, shall be final. The other Zhongpan Sheng. Throw in the towel is two own pieces on the bottom right corner you can.Article VIII live chess and stupid move

shall be final when confirmed by both parties, no two real eyes of chess are stupid move, should be extracted. Shall be final, confirmed by both parties, more than two real eye or two real eyes are living chess, can not extract. The so-called real eye has a line attached, and the other party erupted not threaten.Article 9 calculate the outcome

The first strip Chinese rule
1, Post 3 3/4 sub rule
the first step, picking out the dead child. The second step, only the number of party around point (called the head) and recorded (usually around point for the entire 10 head as a unit), then the number is just that the number of sub-party record, and then mesh and sub-number add up . The third step, if the number of Black, minus 3 and 3/4 child, if the number of White, plus 3 3/4 sub. The fourth step, the results and half of the 180 1/2 (the board 361 points), more than even wins, otherwise the sentence negative. White 177 for victory for popular, Black 185 wins.
2, the first and let the child
let first komi to allow the child to be affixed to the number of the sub-half (let's pre-closing single officer).The
2008 World Mind Sports Games, using the 2008 World Mind Sports Games Go rules, referred to as "Chi Yun Go Rules.second strip rules and Korea rules

Japan and South Korea rules are the same, using the number of law, Black shall be final and be affixed to the six and a half. The number of the first side of the mesh and recorded, then the number of the other mesh and recorded, and then Black minus six and a half, the last and the White, more than the winner. Popular, wins Black 185 White 178 wins.
Chapter II competition provisions first has hand
OK

game has hand by drawing lots choreography of the General Assembly or the game before guess the first decision.
post
In order to counteract the efficiency of the black upper hand, in the final and calculate the outcome of the current national race, the black side need to put up three and three-quarters of the child.
Article timing
timing is an important means to guarantee smooth competition. All the conditions of competition should be the timing system.
1, time limit
according to the different nature of the game, the predetermined time limit of a game of chess each before use. The players use shall not exceed the prescribed time limit. Provisions of a game of chess time limit may be longer or shorter grass-roots game may require 1-2 hours, the national competition requirements to end in one day.
Second, the countdown
using the countdown of the game, should be specified in advance within the time limit to retain a few minutes to start the countdown. National competition to retain the five minutes of the countdown, the grass-roots game can also retained a one minute countdown. Countdown, where a move with less than one minute, excluding time. Each at least one minute then be deducted in the retention time of one minute, but may not run out of the specified time. Countdown work performed by the referee in 30 seconds, 40 seconds, 50 seconds, 55 seconds, 58 seconds, one minute, every newspaper in seconds. Each less retained one minute, the referee shall promptly notify the players "left X minutes". The last-minute countdown of 30 seconds, 40 seconds, 50 seconds, then 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 ... accurate voice every second reported. The last reported method "10, overtime is considered. Blitz game countdown approach, depending on the circumstances otherwise specified by the competition of the General Assembly.
Article finality
In addition to the provisions of Article VII of the General Provisions, any game party to abstain or to be sentenced by the referee for various reasons, negative sentence and the game, but also for final processing.
Second, both sides confirmed a final order of confirmation should be yes, walking side first round, after each other heterochromatic pawn in a release has square checkerboard lower right corner of the line.
Article game suspension and sealed chess
provides a pause time of the suspended game game game (eg-day at noon to be suspended, etc.) not included in the game time limit. Big game, can be sealed chess system, when chess closure time for the game to the provisions of, the game has not yet ended. Under children should immediately exit the wheel erupted in the party think, to prepare for the next point on the record sheet, then sealed to the seat referee. Continued the match, the referee on the spot unsealed Now, marked the location of the game continues.
the Article stadium discipline
First, the game who shall not be unreasonably abstained and halfway out of the race.
Second, the game, the game may not have any prejudice to the other side thinking.
Third, game, game, not other people talking about the game of chess potential, or access to such information.
four, game, games are not free in the game back and forth, watching other people's chess game.
five games who should pay attention to words and deeds of civilization, to keep the clothes clean.
Article game of those rights and obligations
First, the countdown when the inquiry has side left a few minutes.
Second, if there enough to prevent the phenomenon of the normal game or found a problem, have the right to put forward their views to the referee. In addition to the more urgent events, the game should be in their own time playing chess.
Third, when the final and calculate the outcome of the game who requested the right to correct the number of sub-and calculate the outcome of mistakes.
Fourth, the referee judgment, the game must be obeyed, In case of doubt through the organization of the program to the General Assembly immediately lodge a complaint.
five games by the obligation to comply with stadium discipline.
sub opponents left the meeting today, to tell each other where the obligation to pawn under.
seven game final and after the game by finishing a good chess with and obligation to immediately exit.
Article VIII line chess
one party has not abstained, the other even walk two steps, and sentenced to even take the two-step negative. Second, the pieces after picked up from the chessboard elsewhere. Sentenced to pieces back in place, warning time. Such as the chess pieces is indeed falling, allow its picked up after the optional point.
Third, the game midway found under the front of the pawn has been mobile, the consent of the game are consistent with those views, is liable to move the child move back into place, or sentenced to shift child. In the game who disagree, they should immediately report it to the referee's handling. Referee, the son of the move on the chessboard process, sentenced to: move the son moved back to its original; move the sub-effective; a draw; weight under; the case of intentional shift child should be sentenced to shift the child who is negative.
Fourth, the game in, due to external force majeure, resulting in scattered chess game, both sides Replay confirmed, to continue the game. If the two sides can not afford to re-set the penalty or under weight. If the game who indeed have no intention scattered the chess game, reusable plate continued race. Can not be re-set the penalty scattered chess game party for the negative. Such as game party deliberately scattered chess game, forfeit.Article IX grapes

erupted, mistaking each other the son of gas extraction, sentence mistakenly mention the warning time, the son of gas back into the original.
tenth article of forbidden points
pawn erupted point of ban and sentenced to proceed invalid abstained once.
Article XI global and shape reproduction
First, the ko immediately back to mention that sentence back mentioning proceed invalid abstained once.
two, final, in accordance with the prohibition of the principle of global shape reproduction is not allowed to "fake students" as a living chess.
, the two sides refused to give the three robbery, four robbery circulation and longevity, to mention two sons and other rare special case, is liable to a draw or re-
four, according to prohibit reproduction of global isomorphism principle, the game may not be as not final and the reason.
Article XII Other
First, where the referee method not included foul phenomenon, the referee according to the general provisions or spirit of the competition rules, to make a reasonable judgment can not be recognized in the jurisprudence, timely reporting to the chief judge handling.
Second, the game who was sentenced to the warning, shall be recorded in full secondary in a game of chess and sentenced it to be negative.

ancient rules

ancient chess ending child, otherwise can not determine the outcome (in addition to Zhongpan Sheng), but the general part of the endgame, not included in the spectrum, and the concept of ancient chess. Ancient Black komi.
1, the ancient used transposon system, and the game when the first four-star position on the corner of the board were put on the 4 sub, black and white two, similar to the now-pointed star layout.
2, also moves the head.
This is a unique ancient rules, that is, each breaking the other a chess final calculation of the outcome of the other party should be posted to you a child, so the other party was breaking the more you profit more big.
3, the ancient Go dismount divided into rival chess, Rao chess, the first two moves.
and Position level (rival chess), generally under the player using the first; a high level and low level (Rao chess), a master player using the low level player using these pieces under the first.
ancients were warlike, this part is by the rules of decision - pointed star layout coupled with the interests of breaking, a field of fierce fighting the inevitable; the ancients often under bet on chess, the final to win the more sub- [Cause]

boil is caused by what the?

infection and skin dirty, scratches, high ambient temperature or lower the body resistance to infection-related. Boils can occur in any follicles of the skin area, often to the head, face, neck, armpits and buttocks so often by the friction of the parts is more common.

(a) causes

boil the pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus based, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, are also caused by the disease. Local and systemic skin's resistance to infection is reduced mainly due to Benbingfasheng, so infants, malnutrition, diabetes is a good risk of this disease. Dirty skin, skin abrasions, high ambient temperatures often lead to local infection such as the direct cause.

(B) the pathogenesis

bacteria invade the hair follicle and their sebaceous glands and sweat glands, in hair follicles and surrounding tissue multiply rapidly, producing toxins, causing local tissue degeneration, necrosis, and the center of the formation of boils, the performance of local congestion, exudation, induration. Aggregation of neutrophils to the damaged body tissue cells and bacteria to be destroyed, and he gradually necrosis and dissolution, the formation of abscesses in the dermis. Due to Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase contain toxins, so the formation of pus bolt, protruding outward. Swelling and induration clinically visible in the center of a yellow-white pus plug. This is Staphylococcus aureus infected lesion characteristics. Ulceration after discharge pus, abscess gradually by the new fibrous tissue repair and healing.

[Sign]

boil the early symptoms?

1. redness, swelling, heat, pain summary, cylindrical cone.

2. inflammation to the development of nodules increases, the pain intensified.

3. A few days later nodules central necrosis, abscess formation, dissolution, soft induration, pain relief, the central pus head most of the self-rupture, discharge pus, inflammation subsided recovery.

4. furuncle usually no obvious symptoms, but if the blood flow occurred in the rich parts of the body resistance weakened, it can cause discomfort, chills, fever, headache and loss of appetite and other symptoms of toxemia.

5. Facial Boil such as intracranial infection, facial swelling and severe, may be associated with chills, fever, headache, sinus infections and other embolization.

boil because of location, severity of different clinical manifestations may vary.

local swelling and pain sclerosis: no systemic symptoms of early disease and more, only infection redness, swelling, pain, range of not more than 2cm in diameter, small nodules gradually enlarged, as papules bulge. A few days later lesions extended about 3 ~ 5cm, nodules gradually softened, the center was white, a slight touch of the fluctuations; then ulceration pus, and the emergence of yellow-white pus plug. Pus bolt off, pus shed, the inflammation subsides and healing. There is no pus boil bolt (the so-called headless boil), since the collapse a bit late, need to find ways to promote its pus discharge (Figure 2 ).

fever, swollen lymph nodes: furuncle serious infection, the local area of ​​the lymph nodes, tenderness, and may be associated with body heat, and sometimes lymph node abscess formation.

nose, upper lip and around (called "dangerous triangle") of the surface boil, add or pushed in touch, the bacteria via the angular vein, ophthalmic vein into the brain, causing intracranial suppurative infection. At this point may have fever, headache, vomiting, consciousness disorders.

early follicular redness, swelling, heat, pain, induration. After the white purulent center, there is volatility. May be associated with systemic fever, elevated white blood cell count and differential count.

[Aftertreat]

boil ate?

therapeutic side:

1. composed of: a single head of garlic, honey, 9 grams. Usage: pound evenly wrap the affected area.

2. consists of: single head of garlic amount. Usage: Peel and slice into 2 to 3 mm, with the first affected area with warm salt water when dry wash, and then sticking garlic, and gently massage the 10 to 20 minutes, 2 or 3 times a day, 2 3 There is no more. Indications: Boil, folliculitis. Note: In severe cases, such as local irritation may reduce the massage time, a serious condition should be added to serve anti-inflammatory drugs.

3 . composed of: tea 2 grams of dried honeysuckle 1 gram. Usage: boiling water 6 minutes after each meal drink in a cup. Indications: Boil, exogenous heat.

4. composed of: fresh Malan first 100 grams, the amount of liquor. Usage: Add a little salt before blindly smashed wine Ban Cheng paste, coating the surface of the skin furuncle carbuncle. Indications: furuncle, carbuncle.

5. Composition: rosin 10 grams of white wine. Usage: rosin research to fine tune white wine into a paste, resisting heat, wrap the affected area after dissolution, for the degree of responsibility to cover all of the above and then covered with wax paper and tape securely, to enhance efficacy, can drop a few drops of wine, rosin to keep moist. Indications: furuncle, carbuncle, folliculitis.

6. smashed topical papaya leaves, swollen boil carbuncle treatment drug.

7. fresh peach leaf, plug smashed the lesion, treatment of nasal furuncle.

8. rhizome or fresh banana leaves smashed Jiao Zhi, coating the surface of the skin, cure carbuncles, boils, swelling.

9. almond powder with sesame oil paint, heat treatment boil.

10. Purple cane coal deposit of the skin, powder, paint the affected area or sesame oil dressing, boil carbuncle treatment, stomatitis , eczema.

11. raw taro add a little salt, smashed drunk wrap the affected area twice a day replacement, bones can cure pain, swelling of unknown drugs, pediatric head hot boil, finger boil.

12. raw loofah (or leaf), smashed juice, coated surface of the skin, soak sore treatment days, yellow water sores, heat boils, urticaria .

13. mung bean sugar kelp: seaweed 60 grams, shredded, green beans, 150 grams, with the soup, add brown sugar to taste food. There Sedative, diuretic, soft-kin, Phlegm, scattered gall tumor effect. For hypertension, beriberi edema, neck lymphadenopathy, simple goiter, prickly heat boils hot summer day in children poison, phlegm cough embolism.

14. yi melon soup: melon (not peeled) 500-600 g, yi 50-100 grams of soup. Can be flavored with sugar or salt, on behalf of the tea used, heat, hot weather, diuretic, dehumidification effect. Drugs for Rush boils, eczema athlete's foot, yellow urine deficient.

15. Daozhi raw turnip, vinegar and rub the affected area transfer, heat treatment boil.

16. green beans 30 grams of powder, each 10 grams, water delivery service, boils cure breast swelling and pain.

17. failure to adopt the open rose 3 - 5 朵 wash, add water, two pregnant, suffering from a cup of low heat, ice sugar 30 grams, made of rose soup, until the temperature dose, to cure blood stasis amenorrhea, boils Chung pain, traumatic swelling and pain.

18. boils and pus ulceration of the skin sore or eczema, rinse with water, tea, allow the wound clean and promote healing.

19. a white sweet potato, peeled and chopped, smashed, can also be added with the same amount of fresh Houttuynia smashed, spreads in the affected area, apply to the local heating that line replace (about two three hours long), and even apply a few days more, boils cure mastitis.

20. soybeans amount, turn on the water immersed soft, add a little alum were smashed drunk, external surface of the skin, swollen boils boil treatment.

21. adzuki beans with water until soft, mash with water or vinegar, or honey or egg amount, into a paste, external surface of the skin, cure mumps, hot boil.

22. Kapok 30 - 50 grams of sugar amount, fry a bowl with water and drink two bowls and a half. Favorable moisture, heat effect. For enteritis, urethritis, eczema, summer boil embolism.

23. fresh buckwheat leaves 60 grams, Shuijianbi day one; or fried yellow noodles with the vinegar into a paste, applied to the lesion, sooner or later be replaced. Governance sore, swollen boils, erysipelas, mastitis, and swelling of unknown drugs.

appropriate patients to eat what?

1, edible grapes plus zinc salt or zinc, other foods such as soy, sunflower seeds, wheat bran, yeast, brown sugar and so on.

2, Yi Shi taste light, the cold food, such as Malan head, purslane, melon, red and white radish, bitter gourd, sponge gourd, mung bean, red bean, lily, chrysanthemum brain and celery.

patients unfit to eat what?

not eat ginger, pepper and other spicy foods , as well as mustard, yellow croaker, shrimp, crab, chicken head, goose, Zhu Tourou so fat objects.

should avoid fried foods and meat, edible oil cans.

data only refer to the specific, please ask a doctor.

[Prevent]

how to prevent boils?

boil is born of acute suppurative superficial skin disorders, widely available health, children, young people more common. "Surgical management case" that: "boil persons, birth processes, floating red rootless feet, swollen found in the skin, only the width of an inch, there is less pain, a few days later Microsoft, thin peel, the beginning of the blue water, the latter from breaking the pus out of. "The disease occurs in the summer and autumn, protruding roots shallow, swelling potential limitations, lift the red pain, mostly in the range of about 3cm, easily swollen, easy to collapse, Yi Lian. Early can be divided into a head, without the first two kinds of general light and easy to cure the symptoms, so the saying goes, "no boil the size of a pus like." ;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; But also due to the formation of improper treatment or care "mole cricket boils," or repeated seizures, lack of disunion. Multiple furunculosis ", is difficult to cure.

[Treat]

boil precautions before treatment?

attention to the skin clean, timely replacement of underwear and avoid skin injuries, especially in the summer, to bathe, wash your hair, hair, changing clothes, nails, children in particular should pay attention. With honeysuckle and wild chrysanthemum Jiantang tea. Boil the surrounding skin should be kept clean and coated with 70% alcohol to prevent infection spread to nearby hair follicles.

boil Chinese medicine treatment methods

total boil caused by the toxic heat treatment to detoxify the basic principles.

A Differential Treatment:

1. Heat toxin Accumulation card: lesion processes, such as cone, burning pain, or fever, thirst, tongue pink, yellow fur, rapid pulse. Detoxification. Flavors disinfection decoction.

2. Shushi heat Melancholia: seen in summer and autumn, the affected area, such as agglomeration cone, single or multiple, burning pain, chest tightness, anorexia, deficient urination, red tongue, greasy or yellowish, veins slippery. Qingshu dampness, detoxification swelling. Qingshu Decoction.

3. Is virtual evil love cards: distributed in the body, local color dark red, pus scarce, one after another, delayed healing, with fever, irritability, thirst, or fatigue, limb soft, red tongue thin yellow, rapid pulse. Righting detoxification. Liu Wei Di Huang Decoction.

Second, external treatment and other treatment:

1. The beginning of detoxification should be swelling, moderate to henbane, water reconcile, wrap the affected area. Or wishful golden powder for external application. Or green cream Waicha.

2. Pus, the clip bolt out the pus.

3. Unhealed after the collapse, sores can be a little ninety-one Dan to drugs or drug line twist into sores, topical berberine gauze.

4. Oral Meihuadianshe Dan, Niuhuangjiedu, Fang Feng Tong Sheng Wan, Liushen other medicine.

5. Unilateral prescription: Silver Flower 30g, licorice 10g, decoction, on behalf of the tea.

Western boil treatment

1. Local treatment, such as heat, physical therapy, 10% ichthyol coated ointment. Facial Boil should rest in bed should not squeeze or prick Boil, so as not to spread to the brain.

2. Swelling or have a large range of obvious symptoms, should give systemic antibiotics (third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics).

3. The formation of abscess, incision and drainage should be timely but should be avoided Boil the face cut.

(a) treatment

1. The principles of early treatment to promote inflammation subsided, after early drain purulent pus; timely elimination of systemic adverse reactions.

2. Local treatment

(1) Physical therapy: early, ultraviolet micro-irradiation, can promote local anti-inflammatory, to prevent proliferation. Swelling stage, the selection of FM, infrared and other heat, promote Boil liquid. 2 to 3 times / d, 20 ~ 30min / times.

(2) Drug eraser: 0.5% povidone-iodine scrub, the drug not only for skin irritation, and the role of long-lasting, no pigmentation. Can also be used erythromycin, tetracycline ointment.

(3) topical cream: local swelling and a small pustules, use ichthyol, wishful golden powder, Gyokuro powder and so on.

(4) incision and drainage: Boil into pus, nodules soften, a sense of volatility, you can make a small incision drainage or fire needle drainage. Taboo squeeze purulent lesions.

(5) to keep local clean and dry: adhere to local skin cleaning, daily showers are the best conditions. Young children with skin, topical lip after taking a bath in summer, to avoid the formation of multiple Boil.

3. Systemic treatment usually does not require systemic treatment of boils. But facial boils or accompanied by chills, fever, headache, general malaise, etc., should be given antibiotics. Clinical observations and experimental results show that the efficacy of penicillin, cephalothin, cefazolin and amikacin better effect.

(B) the prognosis

generally good prognosis after active treatment, without sequelae.

[Examine]

boil should be how?

1. Peripheral blood

(1) white blood cell count: fever, elevated WBC count may have.

(2) white blood cell count: white blood cell count was elevated often accompanied by increased neutrophils .

2. diabetes check

(1) fasting plasma glucose measurement: two fasting blood glucose were increased, should consider the possibility of diabetes.

(2) glycated serum protein: This clinical trial is not the impact of fluctuations in blood glucose higher than normal to help the diagnosis of diabetes.

(3) glycosylated hemoglobin: glycosylated hemoglobin and blood glucose were positively correlated, and the irreversible reaction. Diabetes is often higher than the normal 2 to 3 times.

3. bacteriologic

(1) bacterial culture: the multiple, repeated infections, abscesses can be extracted directly pus for bacterial culture, positive results will help the diagnosis of pathogens.

(2) drug susceptibility testing: bacterial culture in the pus, while line drug susceptibility testing can provide the scientific basis of clinical drug treatment.

[Diff]

boil diseases easily confused?

1. Multiple sweat gland abscesses are summer disease, more common in infants and young children and frail mother's head, forehead, etc .. Lesions of multiple subcutaneous abscesses. Surface tenderness, inflammation lighter. No pus bolt, left scars. Usually accompanied by a lot of prickly heat. Generally known as prickly heat poison. It was also known as pseudo furunculosis (Pseudofurunculosis).

2. Hidradenitis suppurativa common in young women, lesions of the skin induration. Subcutaneous abscess formation, followed by skin redness, swelling, heat, pain, ulceration scarring. Lesions occur in the armpits, groin, genital and perianal, umbilical, etc.

3. acne acne mild infection, red, swollen, painful, but the disease is small, the top a little bit like creamy.

4. sebaceous cysts sebaceous cyst infection are redness, swelling, pain, but the previous round has been painless mass over an extended period , the epidermis as usual.

5. carbuncle carbuncle with redness, swelling, pain, but there are several hair follicle infection, lesions larger than the boil.

[Disease]

hump-related diseases

juvenile osteochondrosis of vertebral osteoporosis youth sexual hump sore scoliosis ankylosing spondylitis vitamin D deficiency disease

more back symptoms

small blisters appear back back pain back spasms, back pain does not have subtle linen spine back pain sinus pain Road with sensory ataxia spinal nerve root damage spinal cord hemisection syndrome, spinal cord lesions of hemorrhagic infiltration of the spinal cord injury spinal cord infarction, cauda equina involvement across the spinal cord within the spinal cord gliosis in the spinal cord anterior horn of the spinal cord lesion cavity formed spinal thalamic tract compression