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sodium - potassium pump


The sodium-potassium pump (sodium potassium pump), also known as sodium-potassium pump, it caused the cells to NA + concentration higher than the cell through the cell membrane NA + along the concentration difference into the cell, the transporter protein by the body would not be easy substance to the common transport into cells.

principle sodium potassium pump (also known as sodium and potassium transporters), the protein molecule, the exchange between sodium and potassium ions. Whenever the three sodium ions are transferred to

transported out of cells, there are two potassium ions are transported to the cell interior. Maintaining the high sodium in the outer membrane high-K film uneven ion distribution.


high potassium inside the cell is the number of metabolic reactions necessary conditions; prevent cell edema; potential energy reserve.

composition and mode of action


the Na-K pump is driven by the α, β subunits. α subunit molecular weight of to 120KD the transmembrane protein, both Na, K binding sites, but also with the ATPase activity and Na-K pump, also known as Na-K-ATP enzyme. β subunit of the small subunit is a glycoprotein of molecular weight of about 50KD.
is generally believed that the Na-K pump is the first film the inside of the intracellular Na combined with the ATP enzyme activity is activated, the energy released by ATP hydrolysis to "pump" the conformational change of the Na output cells ; At the same time, the "pump" and the cell membrane outside of the K dephosphorylation occurs after the conformational change, again the K input cells. Studies have shown that each consume an ATP molecule, allows cells to reduce 3 Na and increase 2 K.
membrane sodium-potassium pump role first and foremost by Hodkin and Keynes (1955) .1957 years Skou discovered Na +-K + ATP enzyme and prove it with the role of sodium-potassium pump.

mode of action

mode of action of the sodium-potassium pump can be due to different physiological conditions vary in the red cell membrane may have the following ways:
1. normal mode of action - the use of ATP hydrolysis of Na +-K + transmembrane transport coupling.
2. pump the opposite direction - using the Na +-K + transmembrane transport to promote the synthesis of ATP.
3. Na + - Na + exchange reaction may be related to ATP and ADP exchange reaction phase coupling.
4. K + - K + exchange reaction with Pi and H2 (18) O exchange reaction coupling.
5. dependent on ATP hydrolysis, uncoupling the Na + discharge.

works and roles Na +-K + pump - in fact, Na +-K + ATP enzyme, present in the action, the plant cytoplasmic membrane, it has a size of two subunits, the large subunit catalytic ATP hydrolysis, the small subunit is a glycoprotein of Na +-K + ATP enzyme by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation processes occurrence of the conformation of the changes leading to Na +, K, + the affinity changes of the large subunit to affinity of Na +-state combination of Na + after, trigger hydrolysis of ATP per hydrolysis of one ATP release of energy transportation to 3 of Na + into the cell, at the same time uptake of two K + into the cell, resulting in the transmembrane gradient and potential difference which the transmission of nerve impulses especially important, caused by of Na +-K + pump membrane potential difference accounted for about 80% of the entire nerve membrane voltage of. If the purification of Na + the-K + pump assembly in the red cell membrane vesicles (blood film), to artificially increase the membrane on both sides of the of Na +, K, + gradient to a certain extent, gradient held by some of the energy greater than the ATP hydrolysis of the chemical energy, Na +, K, + will reverse cis concentrated poor flow through of Na +-K, + pump, and synthesis of ATP.
a feature of the sodium potassium pump, ion transporter cycle dependent self-phosphorylation, the ATP on a phosphate group is transferred to an aspartic acid residue on the sodium-potassium pump, resulting in conformational changes through self-phosphorylation transporter ion ion pump called P-type, with a similar calcium pump and the proton pump, they had formed a similar function and structure of a protein family

the Na-K pump role: ① to maintain the permeability of the cell to maintain cell volume; ② to maintain low of Na + and K + in the intracellular environment, the maintenance of cell resting potential.
black this glycoside (ouabain), to Gao Xin (of digoxin) and other cardiac able to inhibit the myocardial cells of Na + the-K + pump of the activity so that cells of Na + increased; in order to improve the efficiency of sodium-calcium exchanger, so that calcium influx ion increase, enhance myocardial contractility, and thus has a strong heart role.

sodium-potassium pump and nerve bioelectrical phenomena

resting potential mechanisms

resting potential refers to the quiet in the cells on both sides of the outside is inside negative potential difference. The formation of the membrane on both sides of the ion imbalances in the distribution and membrane has high permeability to K +. Intracellular K + concentration and negatively charged protein concentration greater than the cells (extracellular Na + and Cl-concentration is greater than the cells), but because the cell membrane only have a relatively high permeability to K +, K + cis concentration difference by the intracellular to the extracellular membrane negatively charged protein ions can not revealing the cell, so K + ion relocation caused by the membrane becomes negative outside of the membrane to positive. The one hand, the negative state with K + outflow of the increase, on the other hand, the formation of the outer K + relocation is within the negative will hinder the K + outflow of (positive and negative charges attract each other, while the charge of the same direction repel each other) . Finally reach a K + relocation (due to the concentration difference) and hinder K + relocation (due to the potential difference) equilibrium state, when the membrane potential is called the K + equilibrium potential, in fact, that is (or close to) outside the cell membrane potential difference in the quiet .

action potential mechanism

make the Na + channel a large number of open resulting in a critical membrane potential of the action potential. (Or make the film negative feedback depolarization membrane potential values ​​of Na + influx) is called the threshold potential. Some stimulate duration, causing the minimum stimulus intensity necessary for the excitatory, known as the threshold intensity. Weaker than the threshold potential stimuli, subliminal stimulation, they can only cause depolarization below the threshold potential value, not the development of the action potential. Subliminal stimulation failed to resting potential depolarization to reach threshold potential, but he can also cause a small amount of open contained in this section of membrane Na + channels, which is caused by a small amount of Na + influx caused by depolarization and electrical stimulation depolarization together, and a small depolarization in the stimulation of local, local excitatory or local reactions. Which is characterized by: ① it is not "all or none" in the range of subliminal stimulation, with increasing stimulus intensity increases, ② is not in the membrane for long-distance transmission, but the film itself because resistance and capacitance characteristics of the membrane inside and outside the electrolyte solution, the occurrence of local excitement at a certain point of the film, can make the neighboring membrane produces similar depolarization, but increased with the distance decreases rapidly and even disappear, as an electrical tension expanding local excitatory cloth ③ can be superimposed on each other, when a local excitement because of the electrotonic spreading resulting in near the membrane at a lesser degree of depolarization, where because of another stimulus also produced a local excited both appear alone not enough to cause the first action potential, but if the encounter with the stack up, which may reach the threshold potential triggered the first action potential, called the space sum. Local excitement overlay also can occur in several consecutive threshold stimulate a membrane that is the current surface to stimulate the local excitement yet to be resolved, the local excitement and stimulation later superimposed, called the timing of the sum.
stimulate more than the threshold intensity, the rise velocity of the action potential and can achieve the maximum is no longer dependent on the size of the given stimulus intensity. That stimulate reached sufficient strength, to increase the magnitude of the stimulus intensity does not make the action potential has increased. In addition, the action potential is not only local irritation generated by the stimulation site, but also spread to the surrounding along the cell membrane, and the distance of propagation is not different from the original stimulus intensity until the entire cell membrane followed by excitement and produce a similar size and form of the action potential. That is, action potentials, "all or none" phenomenon.

sodium-potassium pump and disease

scientific research and found that the Na +-K + pump in the normal metabolism of the human body has a very important role, with a number of diseases has a close relationship such as cerebral edema, cataract, cystic fibrosis, epilepsy, migraine headaches, high blood pressure. In addition, recent studies show: Na +-K + pump can also be repeated less fat still inextricably linked.
here, only in respect of the relationship between cataracts and high blood pressure of Na +-K, + pump to do a little introduction.

cataract and Na +-K + pump cause of cataracts is more complex, environment, nutrition, metabolic and genetic factors. the lens of long-term combined effects of the results is generally believed that oxidative damage caused by the cataract most early changes in oxidation will damage the lens cell membrane, so that maintaining intracellular normal generation of sodium and high potassium ion concentrations of Na +-K-ATP enzyme pump function was significantly changed to increase the permeability of sodium ions, sodium ions increase within the lens. lead to the loss of water, and began the process of cortical cataract.

high blood pressure and Na +-K + pump It is reported that patients with hypertension and family history of hypertension and blood pressure normal transmembrane electrolyte transport disorder, a hormone-like substance in the serum can inhibit the of Na +/K, +-the ATP activity sex, resulting in sodium potassium pump function to reduce, resulting in cells of Na +, Ca2 + concentration increase, arterial wall SMC contraction to strengthen, adrenergic receptors (adrenergic receptor,) density, vascular reactivity to strengthen these all contribute to the arterial blood pressure. recent study found that angiotensin (AGT) gene may have 15 kinds of defects, and normal blood pressure, occasional defects, patients with hypertension in AGT gene on three specific parts have the same variation. suffering from high blood pressure, brothers or sisters get the same copy of the parents of the AGT gene in hypertensive patients with this genetic defect, the plasma angiotensinogen level higher than the control the

repeated reduction is still fat and Na +-K + pump recently found that some obese people stick to a diet, the activity is not small, but still "Tizhuang Biaofei to" do all kinds of weight loss means weight increase, it is truly distressing. are the In fact, the root cause of this obesity is the fault occurred because of the thermogenic function of brown adipose tissue in the body, not the normal heat production, energy consumption fat. This is mainly mosaic a dried color on the fat cell membrane is called the sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase "transfer pump" running slow, due to the "pump" transshipment deceleration-based heat production machine to burn fat will not function properly, people's basal body temperature to reduce the body's energy consumption also reduced. This seems to be in the low energy state of a sub hibernation, less energy consumption, people will lean not

prospects Prospects

Na +-K + pump in human life activities of such an important role, but also inextricably linked with the disease, we believe that in the near future, with further research, the people will be able to solve many Unsolved Mysteries!
In addition to the Na-K pump, and of Ca, H-transporter-related Ca pump and proton pump. These "pump" effect, also of great significance for maintaining the stability of the intracellular environment.
Summary: human suction potassium row the sodium /div


boil is caused by what the?

infection and skin dirty, scratches, high ambient temperature or lower the body resistance to infection-related. Boils can occur in any follicles of the skin area, often to the head, face, neck, armpits and buttocks so often by the friction of the parts is more common.

(a) causes

boil the pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus based, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, are also caused by the disease. Local and systemic skin's resistance to infection is reduced mainly due to Benbingfasheng, so infants, malnutrition, diabetes is a good risk of this disease. Dirty skin, skin abrasions, high ambient temperatures often lead to local infection such as the direct cause.

(B) the pathogenesis

bacteria invade the hair follicle and their sebaceous glands and sweat glands, in hair follicles and surrounding tissue multiply rapidly, producing toxins, causing local tissue degeneration, necrosis, and the center of the formation of boils, the performance of local congestion, exudation, induration. Aggregation of neutrophils to the damaged body tissue cells and bacteria to be destroyed, and he gradually necrosis and dissolution, the formation of abscesses in the dermis. Due to Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase contain toxins, so the formation of pus bolt, protruding outward. Swelling and induration clinically visible in the center of a yellow-white pus plug. This is Staphylococcus aureus infected lesion characteristics. Ulceration after discharge pus, abscess gradually by the new fibrous tissue repair and healing.


boil the early symptoms?

1. redness, swelling, heat, pain summary, cylindrical cone.

2. inflammation to the development of nodules increases, the pain intensified.

3. A few days later nodules central necrosis, abscess formation, dissolution, soft induration, pain relief, the central pus head most of the self-rupture, discharge pus, inflammation subsided recovery.

4. furuncle usually no obvious symptoms, but if the blood flow occurred in the rich parts of the body resistance weakened, it can cause discomfort, chills, fever, headache and loss of appetite and other symptoms of toxemia.

5. Facial Boil such as intracranial infection, facial swelling and severe, may be associated with chills, fever, headache, sinus infections and other embolization.

boil because of location, severity of different clinical manifestations may vary.

local swelling and pain sclerosis: no systemic symptoms of early disease and more, only infection redness, swelling, pain, range of not more than 2cm in diameter, small nodules gradually enlarged, as papules bulge. A few days later lesions extended about 3 ~ 5cm, nodules gradually softened, the center was white, a slight touch of the fluctuations; then ulceration pus, and the emergence of yellow-white pus plug. Pus bolt off, pus shed, the inflammation subsides and healing. There is no pus boil bolt (the so-called headless boil), since the collapse a bit late, need to find ways to promote its pus discharge (Figure 2 ).

fever, swollen lymph nodes: furuncle serious infection, the local area of ​​the lymph nodes, tenderness, and may be associated with body heat, and sometimes lymph node abscess formation.

nose, upper lip and around (called "dangerous triangle") of the surface boil, add or pushed in touch, the bacteria via the angular vein, ophthalmic vein into the brain, causing intracranial suppurative infection. At this point may have fever, headache, vomiting, consciousness disorders.

early follicular redness, swelling, heat, pain, induration. After the white purulent center, there is volatility. May be associated with systemic fever, elevated white blood cell count and differential count.


boil ate?

therapeutic side:

1. composed of: a single head of garlic, honey, 9 grams. Usage: pound evenly wrap the affected area.

2. consists of: single head of garlic amount. Usage: Peel and slice into 2 to 3 mm, with the first affected area with warm salt water when dry wash, and then sticking garlic, and gently massage the 10 to 20 minutes, 2 or 3 times a day, 2 3 There is no more. Indications: Boil, folliculitis. Note: In severe cases, such as local irritation may reduce the massage time, a serious condition should be added to serve anti-inflammatory drugs.

3 . composed of: tea 2 grams of dried honeysuckle 1 gram. Usage: boiling water 6 minutes after each meal drink in a cup. Indications: Boil, exogenous heat.

4. composed of: fresh Malan first 100 grams, the amount of liquor. Usage: Add a little salt before blindly smashed wine Ban Cheng paste, coating the surface of the skin furuncle carbuncle. Indications: furuncle, carbuncle.

5. Composition: rosin 10 grams of white wine. Usage: rosin research to fine tune white wine into a paste, resisting heat, wrap the affected area after dissolution, for the degree of responsibility to cover all of the above and then covered with wax paper and tape securely, to enhance efficacy, can drop a few drops of wine, rosin to keep moist. Indications: furuncle, carbuncle, folliculitis.

6. smashed topical papaya leaves, swollen boil carbuncle treatment drug.

7. fresh peach leaf, plug smashed the lesion, treatment of nasal furuncle.

8. rhizome or fresh banana leaves smashed Jiao Zhi, coating the surface of the skin, cure carbuncles, boils, swelling.

9. almond powder with sesame oil paint, heat treatment boil.

10. Purple cane coal deposit of the skin, powder, paint the affected area or sesame oil dressing, boil carbuncle treatment, stomatitis , eczema.

11. raw taro add a little salt, smashed drunk wrap the affected area twice a day replacement, bones can cure pain, swelling of unknown drugs, pediatric head hot boil, finger boil.

12. raw loofah (or leaf), smashed juice, coated surface of the skin, soak sore treatment days, yellow water sores, heat boils, urticaria .

13. mung bean sugar kelp: seaweed 60 grams, shredded, green beans, 150 grams, with the soup, add brown sugar to taste food. There Sedative, diuretic, soft-kin, Phlegm, scattered gall tumor effect. For hypertension, beriberi edema, neck lymphadenopathy, simple goiter, prickly heat boils hot summer day in children poison, phlegm cough embolism.

14. yi melon soup: melon (not peeled) 500-600 g, yi 50-100 grams of soup. Can be flavored with sugar or salt, on behalf of the tea used, heat, hot weather, diuretic, dehumidification effect. Drugs for Rush boils, eczema athlete's foot, yellow urine deficient.

15. Daozhi raw turnip, vinegar and rub the affected area transfer, heat treatment boil.

16. green beans 30 grams of powder, each 10 grams, water delivery service, boils cure breast swelling and pain.

17. failure to adopt the open rose 3 - 5 朵 wash, add water, two pregnant, suffering from a cup of low heat, ice sugar 30 grams, made of rose soup, until the temperature dose, to cure blood stasis amenorrhea, boils Chung pain, traumatic swelling and pain.

18. boils and pus ulceration of the skin sore or eczema, rinse with water, tea, allow the wound clean and promote healing.

19. a white sweet potato, peeled and chopped, smashed, can also be added with the same amount of fresh Houttuynia smashed, spreads in the affected area, apply to the local heating that line replace (about two three hours long), and even apply a few days more, boils cure mastitis.

20. soybeans amount, turn on the water immersed soft, add a little alum were smashed drunk, external surface of the skin, swollen boils boil treatment.

21. adzuki beans with water until soft, mash with water or vinegar, or honey or egg amount, into a paste, external surface of the skin, cure mumps, hot boil.

22. Kapok 30 - 50 grams of sugar amount, fry a bowl with water and drink two bowls and a half. Favorable moisture, heat effect. For enteritis, urethritis, eczema, summer boil embolism.

23. fresh buckwheat leaves 60 grams, Shuijianbi day one; or fried yellow noodles with the vinegar into a paste, applied to the lesion, sooner or later be replaced. Governance sore, swollen boils, erysipelas, mastitis, and swelling of unknown drugs.

appropriate patients to eat what?

1, edible grapes plus zinc salt or zinc, other foods such as soy, sunflower seeds, wheat bran, yeast, brown sugar and so on.

2, Yi Shi taste light, the cold food, such as Malan head, purslane, melon, red and white radish, bitter gourd, sponge gourd, mung bean, red bean, lily, chrysanthemum brain and celery.

patients unfit to eat what?

not eat ginger, pepper and other spicy foods , as well as mustard, yellow croaker, shrimp, crab, chicken head, goose, Zhu Tourou so fat objects.

should avoid fried foods and meat, edible oil cans.

data only refer to the specific, please ask a doctor.


how to prevent boils?

boil is born of acute suppurative superficial skin disorders, widely available health, children, young people more common. "Surgical management case" that: "boil persons, birth processes, floating red rootless feet, swollen found in the skin, only the width of an inch, there is less pain, a few days later Microsoft, thin peel, the beginning of the blue water, the latter from breaking the pus out of. "The disease occurs in the summer and autumn, protruding roots shallow, swelling potential limitations, lift the red pain, mostly in the range of about 3cm, easily swollen, easy to collapse, Yi Lian. Early can be divided into a head, without the first two kinds of general light and easy to cure the symptoms, so the saying goes, "no boil the size of a pus like." ;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; But also due to the formation of improper treatment or care "mole cricket boils," or repeated seizures, lack of disunion. Multiple furunculosis ", is difficult to cure.


boil precautions before treatment?

attention to the skin clean, timely replacement of underwear and avoid skin injuries, especially in the summer, to bathe, wash your hair, hair, changing clothes, nails, children in particular should pay attention. With honeysuckle and wild chrysanthemum Jiantang tea. Boil the surrounding skin should be kept clean and coated with 70% alcohol to prevent infection spread to nearby hair follicles.

boil Chinese medicine treatment methods

total boil caused by the toxic heat treatment to detoxify the basic principles.

A Differential Treatment:

1. Heat toxin Accumulation card: lesion processes, such as cone, burning pain, or fever, thirst, tongue pink, yellow fur, rapid pulse. Detoxification. Flavors disinfection decoction.

2. Shushi heat Melancholia: seen in summer and autumn, the affected area, such as agglomeration cone, single or multiple, burning pain, chest tightness, anorexia, deficient urination, red tongue, greasy or yellowish, veins slippery. Qingshu dampness, detoxification swelling. Qingshu Decoction.

3. Is virtual evil love cards: distributed in the body, local color dark red, pus scarce, one after another, delayed healing, with fever, irritability, thirst, or fatigue, limb soft, red tongue thin yellow, rapid pulse. Righting detoxification. Liu Wei Di Huang Decoction.

Second, external treatment and other treatment:

1. The beginning of detoxification should be swelling, moderate to henbane, water reconcile, wrap the affected area. Or wishful golden powder for external application. Or green cream Waicha.

2. Pus, the clip bolt out the pus.

3. Unhealed after the collapse, sores can be a little ninety-one Dan to drugs or drug line twist into sores, topical berberine gauze.

4. Oral Meihuadianshe Dan, Niuhuangjiedu, Fang Feng Tong Sheng Wan, Liushen other medicine.

5. Unilateral prescription: Silver Flower 30g, licorice 10g, decoction, on behalf of the tea.

Western boil treatment

1. Local treatment, such as heat, physical therapy, 10% ichthyol coated ointment. Facial Boil should rest in bed should not squeeze or prick Boil, so as not to spread to the brain.

2. Swelling or have a large range of obvious symptoms, should give systemic antibiotics (third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics).

3. The formation of abscess, incision and drainage should be timely but should be avoided Boil the face cut.

(a) treatment

1. The principles of early treatment to promote inflammation subsided, after early drain purulent pus; timely elimination of systemic adverse reactions.

2. Local treatment

(1) Physical therapy: early, ultraviolet micro-irradiation, can promote local anti-inflammatory, to prevent proliferation. Swelling stage, the selection of FM, infrared and other heat, promote Boil liquid. 2 to 3 times / d, 20 ~ 30min / times.

(2) Drug eraser: 0.5% povidone-iodine scrub, the drug not only for skin irritation, and the role of long-lasting, no pigmentation. Can also be used erythromycin, tetracycline ointment.

(3) topical cream: local swelling and a small pustules, use ichthyol, wishful golden powder, Gyokuro powder and so on.

(4) incision and drainage: Boil into pus, nodules soften, a sense of volatility, you can make a small incision drainage or fire needle drainage. Taboo squeeze purulent lesions.

(5) to keep local clean and dry: adhere to local skin cleaning, daily showers are the best conditions. Young children with skin, topical lip after taking a bath in summer, to avoid the formation of multiple Boil.

3. Systemic treatment usually does not require systemic treatment of boils. But facial boils or accompanied by chills, fever, headache, general malaise, etc., should be given antibiotics. Clinical observations and experimental results show that the efficacy of penicillin, cephalothin, cefazolin and amikacin better effect.

(B) the prognosis

generally good prognosis after active treatment, without sequelae.


boil should be how?

1. Peripheral blood

(1) white blood cell count: fever, elevated WBC count may have.

(2) white blood cell count: white blood cell count was elevated often accompanied by increased neutrophils .

2. diabetes check

(1) fasting plasma glucose measurement: two fasting blood glucose were increased, should consider the possibility of diabetes.

(2) glycated serum protein: This clinical trial is not the impact of fluctuations in blood glucose higher than normal to help the diagnosis of diabetes.

(3) glycosylated hemoglobin: glycosylated hemoglobin and blood glucose were positively correlated, and the irreversible reaction. Diabetes is often higher than the normal 2 to 3 times.

3. bacteriologic

(1) bacterial culture: the multiple, repeated infections, abscesses can be extracted directly pus for bacterial culture, positive results will help the diagnosis of pathogens.

(2) drug susceptibility testing: bacterial culture in the pus, while line drug susceptibility testing can provide the scientific basis of clinical drug treatment.


boil diseases easily confused?

1. Multiple sweat gland abscesses are summer disease, more common in infants and young children and frail mother's head, forehead, etc .. Lesions of multiple subcutaneous abscesses. Surface tenderness, inflammation lighter. No pus bolt, left scars. Usually accompanied by a lot of prickly heat. Generally known as prickly heat poison. It was also known as pseudo furunculosis (Pseudofurunculosis).

2. Hidradenitis suppurativa common in young women, lesions of the skin induration. Subcutaneous abscess formation, followed by skin redness, swelling, heat, pain, ulceration scarring. Lesions occur in the armpits, groin, genital and perianal, umbilical, etc.

3. acne acne mild infection, red, swollen, painful, but the disease is small, the top a little bit like creamy.

4. sebaceous cysts sebaceous cyst infection are redness, swelling, pain, but the previous round has been painless mass over an extended period , the epidermis as usual.

5. carbuncle carbuncle with redness, swelling, pain, but there are several hair follicle infection, lesions larger than the boil.


hump-related diseases

juvenile osteochondrosis of vertebral osteoporosis youth sexual hump sore scoliosis ankylosing spondylitis vitamin D deficiency disease

more back symptoms

small blisters appear back back pain back spasms, back pain does not have subtle linen spine back pain sinus pain Road with sensory ataxia spinal nerve root damage spinal cord hemisection syndrome, spinal cord lesions of hemorrhagic infiltration of the spinal cord injury spinal cord infarction, cauda equina involvement across the spinal cord within the spinal cord gliosis in the spinal cord anterior horn of the spinal cord lesion cavity formed spinal thalamic tract compression

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