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Flocculant according to their chemical composition overall can be divided into two types of inorganic flocculants and organic flocculants. Inorganic flocculant include inorganic flocculants and inorganic polymer flocculant; organic flocculants and synthetic organic polymer flocculants, natural organic polymer flocculant and microbial flocculant.



theoretical basis is: "coalescence theory, flocculants with positive (negative) power groups and some water with a negative (positive) electrical properties are difficult to separate particles called particles, reducing their potential to make it in an unstable state, and its aggregate nature makes these particles concentrated and separated by physical or chemical methods.
Pharmacy is generally used to achieve this purpose, called flocculants. The flocculant used in the field of water supply and sewage treatment.


there are many varieties, and their common features is the ability to gather suspended particles in the solution links the formation of a thick flocculent pellets or clumps. They are organic polymer containing a large number of active groups, there are three major classes:
1, a natural organic polymer based on chemically treated to increase its content of active groups is made.
2, the modern organic chemical synthesis of polyacrylamide products.
3, made from natural raw materials and polyacrylamide graft (or copolymer).
some of the natural organic polymer such as polysaccharides containing carboxyl more and containing phosphate more starch has a flocculation performance. Chemical methods in the introduction of active groups in the macromolecules can improve the performance and the the Etherification introduction of carboxyl, amide, active groups, such as a natural polysaccharide, flocculation can accelerate the cane juice settlement.
natural polymer substances such as starch, cellulose, chitosan and acrylamide graft polymerization, the polymers have good flocculation properties, or a combination of some of the special performance. Domestic development of some products, mainly used in sewage treatment and sludge dewatering.
present in domestic water treatment, the most widely used flocculant, is a synthetic polyacrylamide series, is divided into anionic, cationic, nonionic and compound ionic.
polyacrylamide (of polyacrylamide -), often abbreviated as PAM (in the past also abbreviated as PHP). Water treatment in recent years to use the PAM, in essence, a certain percentage of acrylamide and sodium acrylate copolymer by the reaction of the polymer product, a range of products.
acrylamide formula: CH2 = CH-CONH2
sodium acrylate of formula: CH2 = CH-COONa


is divided into two broad categories: preparation of iron series and aluminum preparation series, of course, including clusters of polymer series. The flocculant many species, their common feature is the suspended particles in the solution can be gathered links to form a floc aggregate or clumps of thick.
the organic flocculants:
polyacrylamide (of polyacrylamide -), often abbreviated as PAM. Divided into anionic polyacrylamide, cationic polyacrylamide, nonionic polyacrylamide. Polyacrylamide according to the size of the molecular weight can be divided into ultra-high molecular weight polyacrylamide, high relative molecular weight polyacrylamide, relative molecular weight polyacrylamide, and low relative molecular weight polyacrylamide. Ultrahigh molecular weight polyacrylamide for oil field EOR, high relative molecular weight of polyacrylamide used as a flocculant, the relative molecular weight polyacrylamide is mainly used to do the paper dry strength agents, low relative molecular weight polyacrylamide with Do dispersant.
Pharmacy contains by the modification of plant polyphenols, because it also contains a phenolic hydroxyl, alcoholic hydroxyl, carboxyl, reaction active groups and the active site, as well as the center of the nucleophilic and electrophilic centers, so that can take place simultaneously a variety of chemical reactions of nucleophilic and electrophilic. Technically good blend of organic and inorganic flocculants strengths and skills, overcome the drawbacks of the traditional organic and inorganic flocculants at the same time running immiscible.
pharmaceutical used in erythromycin pretreatment, starch processing, water reuse, beer, phytin, urban sewage, landfill leachate, alcohol production difficult sewage treatment, with a one-time investment in the province , technology, easy to operate and low operating costs, a good effect.

inorganic flocculants

classification and nature
inorganic flocculants include aluminum sulfate, aluminum chloride, ferric sulfate, ferric chloride, aluminum sulfate was first developed by the United States, and has been used since an important inorganic flocculants. Commonly used aluminum salts, aluminum sulfate, AL2 (SO4) 3.18H2O and alum AL2 (SO4) 3.K2SO4.24H2O, the other is iron salts ferric chloride hydrate FeCL3.6H2O ferrous sulfate hydrate FeSO4.17H2O and sulfuric acid iron.
inorganic flocculants advantage of economic, usage, simple; but the amount is large, low flocculation, and the high cost of corrosion shortcomings. Inorganic polymer flocculant of inorganic polymer flocculants the late 1960s developed a new type of waste water treatment agent. Compared with the traditional flocculant, it can exponentially improve performance and lower prices, and thus gradually become the mainstream pharmaceutical trends. Japan, Russia, Western Europe and China's production of such flocculants has reached the degree of industrialization, large-scale and process automation, coupled with stable product quality, the production of inorganic polymer flocculants accounted for flocculant total output of 30% to 60%.
simple inorganic polymer flocculants, such inorganic polymer flocculant polymer of aluminum and iron salts. Such as polyaluminum chloride (PAC), the polymerization of aluminum sulfate (PAS), the polymerization of ferric chloride (PFC) as well as polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS). Inorganic polymer flocculant reason than the effect of other inorganic flocculants, the fundamental reason is that it provides a large number of complex ions, and the strong adsorption of colloidal particles by adsorption, the bridge, cross-linking, so that the colloid aggregation. Physical and chemical changes also occur, and colloidal particles and suspended solids in surface charge, reduce the delta potential, colloidal particles from the repulsion becomes attraction and undermine the stability of the micelles, colloidal particles collide with each other, thus the formation of floc coagulation, sedimentation surface area of ​​up to (200 ~ 1000) m2/g, a great adsorption capacity.
modified single cationic inorganic flocculants in recent years have developed a complex inorganic flocculants and composite inorganic polymer flocculants. Polysilicate flocculant (PSAA) is a new type of inorganic polymer flocculant preparation method is simple, wide variety of sources of raw materials, low cost processing of heavy oil produced water has more oil capacity, it has great development value and broad application prospects. Polysilicate ferric sulfate (PFSS) flocculants, with a high degree of polymerization of silicic acid with metal ions can produce good coagulation effect. Metal ions lead to a polysilicate of coagulant average molecular mass of up to 2 × 105, may replace the organic synthetic polymer flocculants in the water treatment part. Phosphorus accumulating ferric chloride (PPFC) PO43-high prices anion with Fe3 + have a strong affinity for Fe3 + in aqueous solution had a greater influence to participate in the complexation of Fe3 + reaction and bridging between the iron atoms to form multinucleated complex; power of negatively charged diatomite colloid in water and adsorption bridging the enhanced role of PO43-participation of alum volume density, increased flocculation. Poly phosphorus and aluminum chloride (PPAC) is also based on phosphate strong increase in the dimerization of polyaluminum (PAC), polyaluminum the introduction of an appropriate amount of phosphate, phosphate increased dimerization, PPAC produce a new class of high charge with multicore intermediate complex of phosphate. Poly-silicic-ferric (PSF) it not only works well with low temperature and low turbidity than the ferric sulfate flocculation effect has obvious advantages, such as using less feed a wide range of alum formed a short time and form thick easy settlement. can shorten the water sample residence time in the treatment system, thereby enhancing the processing capabilities of the system, no influence on the pH of treated water. modified cationic inorganic flocculants

the polymerization sulfuric acid-ferric chloride (PAFCS) in drinking water and sewage treatment, with better results than alum; oily wastewater and dyeing wastewater PAFCS than the PAC results are excellent, and the decolorization also excellent; floc than significant, flocculation speed fast, easy filtering, high water; its raw materials from industrial waste residue, low cost, suitable for industrial water treatment. Aluminum and iron copolymer composite flocculants are of such products, the raw material of aluminum chloride and ferric chloride are inexpensive traditional inorganic flocculants, a wide source of the production process is simple, is conducive to the development and application. Aluminum and iron salts of the copolymer is different from a mixture of two salts, it is a more effective integration of the advantages of the PAC and FeCl3, and enhance the flocculant to the cloud effect.
With the continuous improvement of the water treatment awareness, residual aluminum produced toxic effects on organisms much attention, how to reduce the secondary pollution problem has been more and more attention. Existing production methods obtained the aluminum content in drinking water than the raw water is generally 1-2 times higher. Residual aluminum content in drinking water may be due to the flocculation process is imperfect, resulting in part of the aluminum fine particles of aluminum hydroxide present in the water. The enhanced flocculation purification method, to improve the flocculation reaction conditions, extending the time of the slow flocculation can effectively reduce aluminum and other content. Taking into account the corrosive and toxic inorganic flocculant will have adverse effects on human health and ecological environment, people developed out of the organic polymer flocculant.
organic inorganic composite flocculant to the diversification of species diversity and performance of the dominant. The mechanism of action and synergy. Inorganic polymer composition of adsorbed impurities and suspended particles, so that the formation of particles and gradually increased; organic polymer composition through its own bridging effect of the active groups adsorbed on the organic polymer to produce netting, netting the other impurities particles with sinking. Meanwhile, the presence of inorganic salts in the surface charge of pollutants and to promote the flocculation of the organic polymer, greatly improving the flocculation. Production and application of inorganic polymer flocculants in China has made considerable progress, the most representative of the PAC and PFS has been highest in the world.
the polymerization sulfuric acid-ferric chloride (PAFCS) is one of the effective Fe-Al-content (AL2O3 + Fe2O3) is greater than 22% product hygroscopicity. Studies have shown that: in the case of aluminum chloride (PAC), an effective aluminum content greater than PAFCS effective aluminum and iron content of PAFCS sewage treatment than alum, better results; oily wastewater and dyeing wastewater PAFCS than PAC's are excellent, and decolorization. Floc significant flocculation is fast, easy filtering, high water, the raw material in industrial waste residue, lower cost, suitable for wastewater treatment.polymerization of poly iron silicon flocculant
is one of them, the use of its domestic wastewater treatment, treatment efficiency and COD removal efficiency is better than the aggregation of iron, in addition to more than 99% of the turbidity rate, the decolorization rate of 65% ~ 70%, COD removal rate of 70%, and can remove most of the ammonia in the sewage and all the phosphorus.
Al-Fe copolymer composite flocculant also belong to such products, the raw material of aluminum chloride and ferric chloride are inexpensive traditional inorganic flocculants, wide, simple production technology, development and utilization of . Aluminum and iron salts of the copolymer is different from a mixture of two salts, it is a more effective integration of a PAC and FeCL3, advantages, and enhance the flocculant to the cloud effect. Copolymer composite flocculant iron content and form in which aluminum and iron distribution on the flocculation performance needs further study, the pH value of the copolymer determined by PAC and FeCL3, solution hydrolysis, the corresponding pH of the solution in the mother liquor of two , depending on where aluminum or iron salt content may be.

organic polymer flocculant

organic polymer flocculants appeared in the 1950s, their broad application of the future, developing very rapidly. Has been used in water purification, the demulsification of water/oil system, oily waste water treatment, wastewater reuse resources and sludge dewatering, etc.; also can be used as a mud treatment agent for oil field development process, the selective blocking agent, water thickener , textile printing and dyeing process, softeners, anti-static agents and common sterilization, disinfectants, etc.. the types and nature
organic polymer flocculant are two major categories of natural polymer and synthetic polymer. Chemical structure can be divided into three types: (1) polyamines - low molecular weight cationic electrolyte; (2) quaternary ammonium type - the molecular weight range, and has a high cationic; (3) acrylamide copolymer - the high molecular weight, can be hundreds of thousands to several millions, tens of millions, are emulsion or powder formulations for sale, less convenient to use, but the flocculation performance. According to the cationic, anionic, nonionic, three categories can be divided into charged particles from the solution after containing different functional groups. The organic polymer flocculant macromolecules with-COO-,-NH-,-SO3,-OH and other hydrophilic groups, with chain, ring and other structure. Because of its active groups and high molecular weight, with less and less dross production, flocculation ability, floc easily separated, degreasing and in addition to the suspended material effect good in the Oil Refinery Wastewater Treatment, and other industrial waste water, high suspended Waste Water and cationic flocculants in solid-liquid separation has a wide usage. Acrylamide series of organic polymer flocculant its high molecular weight, flocculation bridging ability and show the superiority in water treatment. non-ionic organic polymer flocculant

non-ionic organic polymer flocculant is mainly polyacrylamide. It consists of acrylamide polymerization derived. anionic organic polymer flocculant

(1) anionic organic polymer flocculant polyacrylic acid, sodium polyacrylate, polypropylene calcium and polyacrylamide alkaline hydrolysis matter such as polymers.
(2) of acrylamide and styrene sulfonate, wood sulfonate, acrylic acid, methyl acrylic acid copolymer. cationic organic polymer flocculant

2.4.1 quarter of ammonium polyacrylamide
quaternized polyacrylamide cation are-NH2 after hydroxymethylation and quaternary ammonium technology are derived can be divided into polyacrylamide cationic and cationic acrylamide polymerization.
(1) of the by polyacrylamide season ammonium
polyacrylamide (PAM) is the first reaction with formaldehyde in aqueous solution, the amide part of the hydroxymethyl, followed by reaction with secondary amines and the alkyl amine, so that the tertiary amine and then with hydrochloric acid or amine reagent quaternary ammonium.
(2) the quaternized acrylamide polymerization
under alkaline conditions, the first response of acrylamide with formaldehyde in aqueous solution, then with dimethylamine reaction, after cooling plus quaternary ammonium hydrochloride. Product is concentrated by evaporation, filtration may be quaternized acrylamide monomer.cationic derivatives of polyacrylamide

these products are a total of acrylamide and cationic monomer polymerization obtained. Amphoteric amide polymers

to the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide by adding the appropriate amount of formaldehyde and dimethylamine by Manni Zi reaction synthesis with carboxyl and amine methyl amphoteric polyacrylamide flocculant. acrylamide graft copolymer

because starch cheap source of rich, its own high-molecular compound, it has a hydrophilic chain of rigid skeleton of such a rigid chain, connected to a flexible polyacrylamide chain, the hardness and softness In addition to maintaining the functionality of the original polyacrylamide, mesh macromolecules, but also has some more excellent performance.
As most of the organic polymer flocculant itself or its hydrolysis and degradation of toxic product, and the synthesis of toxic acrylamide monomer can narcotic central nervous system, applications subject to certain restrictions, forcing the flocculant to cheap and practical, non-toxic and efficient direction.

microbial flocculants

foreign microbial flocculants commercial production began in the 1990s, there is no secondary pollution, easy to use, attractive application prospects. Such as red flat Rhodococcus, and thus made the NOC-1 is found in the best microbial flocculants, has a strong flocculating activity, widely used in livestock wastewater, bulking sludge, colored wastewater treatment. Of microbial flocculant products has not been reported.
flocculant microbial flocculants include the use of microbial cell wall extracts flocculants, flocculant metabolites of microbial cell wall, the direct use of microbial cell flocculant and cloning technology. Flocculant substances produced by microbes of glycoproteins, mucopolysaccharides, protein, cellulose, DNA and other polymers, relative molecular mass of more than 105.
Microbial Flocculant is the use of biotechnology, from micro-organisms or their secretions extraction and purification to obtain a safe, efficient, and can the natural degradation of a new water treatment agent. Microbial flocculants can overcome the inorganic polymer and synthetic organic polymer flocculant inherent defects, and ultimately non-polluting emissions FLOCCULANT is becoming an important research topic of today's world flocculant. the types and nature
Microbial Flocculant researchers have long known that some microorganisms such as yeast, bacteria and other cell flocculation phenomenon, but has not produce its great importance, just as cell enrichment. Over the last decade, cell flocculation technology only as a biological product of the economic separation technology has been widely used in the continuous fermentation and separation of products. Microbial flocculant a flocculation functional organic polymer produced by microorganisms. Glycoproteins, mucopolysaccharides, cellulose, and nucleic acid. Its source also belong to the natural organic polymer flocculant, so it has all the advantages of natural organic polymer flocculant. FLOCCULANT work has been purified, modified into the use of biotechnology to filter the good bacteria at a lower cost efficient flocculant, the scope of its research has gone beyond the traditional natural the scope of the study of the organic polymer flocculant. The secretion flocculant ability of microorganisms known as the flocculant-producing bacteria. Earliest flocculant-producing bacteria is Butterfield screened from activated sludge. 1976, Nakamura, j. People from the mold, bacteria, actinomycetes, yeast strains, screened 19 kinds of flocculation ability of microorganisms which sojae (the Aspergillus souae) AJ7002 flocculant. 1985, Takagi H, such as the study intends to penicillin (Paecilomyces sp.l-1) microbial flocculant PF101. PF101 good flocculation effect of Bacillus subtilis, E. coli, beer, sprinkle yeast, red blood cells, activated sludge, cellulose powder, activated carbon, diatomaceous earth, alumina, etc.. 1986, Kurane et al Rhodococcus (Rhodococcuserythropolis) developed a successful interest bioflocculant NOC-1, E. coli, yeast, slurry, water, river water, fly ash water, activated carbon powder, water, expansion of the sludge, pulp wastewater have excellent flocculation and decolorization, is currently found in the best microbial flocculants.
flocculant molecular weight, molecular structure and shape, and its brought groups of flocculant activity has an impact. In general, the molecular weight, the higher the flocculating activity; high flocculating activity of linear molecules, more molecules with branched-chain or crosslinked the flocculation worse; flocculant-producing bacteria in the culture late cell surface of vegetable water-based enhanced, resulting in the higher the activity of the flocculant. Dealing with the surface structure and charge of the colloidal ion in water also affect the flocculation. Some reports that the water bodies cations, especially Ca2 + and Mg2 + exists that can effectively reduce the negative charge of the colloid surface, to promote the formation of "bridging". In addition, the presence of high concentrations of Ca2 + but also the protection of flocculant is not the role of the degrading enzyme. A wide range of microbial flocculant, the flocculation activity, and the role of conditions is extensive, mostly from ionic strength, pH value and temperature, it can be widely used in sewage and industrial wastewater treatment. Microbial flocculant efficiency, the advantages of safety, do not pollute the environment, has a huge potential value in the field of medicine, food processing, bio-products separation.The application of microbial flocculants

3.3.1 of urban sewage
isolated from urban sewage flocculation, degradation and efficient mixed flora of sewage processing to enable sewage COD and BOD
In addition to the rate of 100% 1 [0. ]
3.3.2 Building Material Waste Water
a class of wastewater containing high suspended solids in building materials processing wastewater is more difficult, such as ceramics factory wastewater, including wastewater two kinds of embryo wastewater and glaze.
The former contains more clay particles, which in addition to containing clay particles, a substantial number of glaze. Add the NOC-1 5 min, the turbidity of the embryo wastewater from 1.4 to 0.043; the glaze effluent turbidity decreased from 17.2 to 0.35; turbidity removal efficiencies were 96.6% and 97.9% can be obtained almost transparent supernatant 1 [2. The] flocculant by Rhodococcus tile factory processing wastewater, treated supernatant is almost transparent [13. ]
3.3.3 other applications
safe, non-toxic characteristics of microbial flocculants, gradually in the food wastewater treatment has been adopted, and to achieve satisfactory results. In addition, the microbial flocculation
agent also widely used in a wide range of urban sewage, hospital wastewater, petrochemical, waste water, paper waste, pharmaceutical wastewater treatment process.
In summary, from low molecular weight polymer from the inorganic to the organic and microbial, by a single compound is the development trend of the flocculant. Pursuit of efficient, cheap, ring
Paul is flocculants developed goals, the development of non-toxic or low toxic-efficient flocculant in a targeted manner, in the drinking water and other human activities related to water treatment, biological poison
and the residue no longer cause the two times of pollution, is an important direction for future flocculant research and development. Strengthen quantitative research, followed by flocculation and reduce production costs is a top priority to the development of new flocculant. In theory and practice of double drive, safe, non-toxic and efficient microbial flocculant great to replace the traditional flocculant trend
inorganic and organic polymer composite flocculant combines the advantages of inorganic and organic at home and abroad a wide range of carrying out, has become the hotspot of the flocculant.

flocculant works

flocculation and sedimentation method is the choice of inorganic flocculants (such as aluminum sulfate) and organic anionic flocculant polyacrylamide ammonium (PAM) preparation of the aqueous solution by adding wastewater will have to compress the electric double layer, so that the suspended particles in wastewater to loss of stability, colloidal matter unite with each other so that the particles increases, the formation of floc, alum. Floc after grow up to a certain volume from the water phase precipitation under gravity, in order to remove suspended solids in the wastewater to achieve the effect of water treatment. To improve the separation effect can be timely and appropriate to add a coagulant. Treated sewage in the chroma, chromium, suspended solids content, etc. Basically, to meet emission standards, efflux or used as artificial water injection oil recovery injection water.


Looking at the status quo of the flocculant can be seen, the variety of flocculant from low molecular weight polymer from a single type of compound, the general trend is to cheap and practical, non-toxic and efficient direction. Inorganic flocculants are cheap, but will have adverse effects on human health and ecological environment; organic polymer flocculant, although with less, less dross production and strong flocculation, flocs easy separation of the oil removal and addition to suspended solids effect However, the residual monomer of such polymer has the effect of "three to" (caused by Kawasaki, carcinogenic, mutagenic), thus its application is limited in scope; microbial flocculant where there was no secondary pollution, easy to use, the application prospects attractive. Microbial flocculant may in the future to replace or partially replace traditional inorganic polymer and synthetic organic polymer flocculant. The development and application of microbial flocculants in the ascendant, its features and benefits shows a broad prospect for the development of water treatment technology.

flocculant role

water purification process, the role of flocculant increases what is
flocculant is mainly inorganic flocculants, organic polymer flocculant and microbial flocculants are mainly used to deal with sewage, the specific -The organic polymer flocculant in
Oil Refinery Wastewater Treatment, and other industrial waste water, high suspension of cationic flocculants in the matter of waste water and solid-liquid separation has a wide range of uses. Acrylamide series of organic polymer flocculant its high molecular weight, flocculation bridging ability and show the superiority in water treatment. A wide range of microbial flocculant, the flocculation activity, and the role of conditions is extensive, mostly from ionic strength, pH value and temperature, it can be widely used in sewage and industrial wastewater treatment.
flocculant is to make water and impurities quickly and thoroughly separated from thethe microbial flocculant role

compared with the organic polymer flocculant microbial flocculant flocculation wide areas, high activity, safe non-toxic, do not pollute the environment and other characteristics and conditions of use thin set, the presence of broad-spectrum flocculating activity, and thus, commonly used in water supply and sewage treatment.
⑴ high concentration organic wastewater treatment, high concentration organic wastewater contains livestock wastewater and other food and farm wastewater, such wastewater biochemical treatment before normal Tim flocculation pretreatment process. Microorganisms flocculant flocculation motive worse than the SPA by means the not if metachronous microbial flocculants war a large number of SPA mixed first, wrong the consequences of monosodium glutamate wastewater pretreatment step back progress and add the total investment of the pharmaceutical quality shows narrow.
⑵ printing and dyeing waste fire wear color printing and dyeing waste fruit pale in color, the group was heterogeneous, gel-free dyes, pulp, to help agents, fibers, due to the plastic, wax content, organic salts and other materials, still hidden only for state how much one of the difficulties of the chaotic management of industrial wastewater. Processing easy to point a non-high COD, while the older B/C ratio can be the division of the poor; two non-color high and the group heterogeneous. The crucial point is the treatment of dyeing wastewater decolorization, investment expense dwarf in a variety of approach to flocculation fruit, equipment accounted for more days, the quality of disposal capacity, the decolorization rate was widely adopted. The heteromeric iron species flocculant compared to micro-dead flocculant not only have good flocculation accumulation of the NAO's performance, but there are good bad consequences of wearing color, normal the flocculant do not have the upper hand in the printing and dyeing waste fire West, flocculant .
(3) high-light organic matter suspended wastewater solutions to high-light organic suspended waste water is a No maturation to mention the Department of wastewater, traditional agronomic normal take EDUCATION flocculation approach. Micro-cooked things flocculant for kaolinite ocean mud slurry, fly ash and water samples treatment, whether outside in the experiment through the flocculation of the function of micro-division material and processing ceramics factory wastewater, wastewater glaze war adobe wastewater.
⑷ activated sludge solve piecemeal by the light of the effectiveness of regular fruit sludge performance deterioration and decline in active sludge West to participate in micro-dead flocculant, whether the sludge volume index is very fast landing, the prevention of sludge Department of floc, to dispel the sludge contraction, the Lord can restore back to nature sludge weight l, progress of the effectiveness of all of the disposal system.
information, slightly cooked material for a so the type of flocculant flocculant has a good bad vision, and not generally applied to high-light the solution of the inorganic waste, wear the color of fire of the dye waste, activated sludge processing treasure disposal of the West, and shows the powerful life force. Micro-dead flocculant not.
PAC use
best settings program are as follows:
1 the first laboratory analysis, if the suspended matter and solid-liquid the physiognomy potential negative (generally negative), can be PAC + CPAM program.
determine the amount of PAC: you need to do an amount of test in the test room to determine the amount of PAC alone and go cloud effect curve.
If the PAC alone when under the effects of dosage A, you can actual usage as the A-value 1/4--1/3, while the remaining work to the CPAM to complete.
4 laboratory to determine the ratio of PAC and CPAM: in PAC usage is 1/3 the case of the A-value to determine how much the CPAM to the PAC, the condensation effect of bridging the most appropriate. Experiments to determine the added using the ratio of the PAC and CPAM.
the above steps will allow sewage treatment enterprises get the best results and lowest cost of the flocculation.
For example: if 1,000 square water consumption when the PAC amount of 20KG best, then, in fact, can be used 6KG the PAC cohesion. With 200 g of CPAM (generally PAC dosage of 1/30) to complete the tiny floc the original 14KGPAC to complete the connection work. Coordination, the PAC and CPAM own handy work, and to achieve the best benefits.
above approach is unanimously recognized efficient, low-cost combination.


boil is caused by what the?

infection and skin dirty, scratches, high ambient temperature or lower the body resistance to infection-related. Boils can occur in any follicles of the skin area, often to the head, face, neck, armpits and buttocks so often by the friction of the parts is more common.

(a) causes

boil the pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus based, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, are also caused by the disease. Local and systemic skin's resistance to infection is reduced mainly due to Benbingfasheng, so infants, malnutrition, diabetes is a good risk of this disease. Dirty skin, skin abrasions, high ambient temperatures often lead to local infection such as the direct cause.

(B) the pathogenesis

bacteria invade the hair follicle and their sebaceous glands and sweat glands, in hair follicles and surrounding tissue multiply rapidly, producing toxins, causing local tissue degeneration, necrosis, and the center of the formation of boils, the performance of local congestion, exudation, induration. Aggregation of neutrophils to the damaged body tissue cells and bacteria to be destroyed, and he gradually necrosis and dissolution, the formation of abscesses in the dermis. Due to Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase contain toxins, so the formation of pus bolt, protruding outward. Swelling and induration clinically visible in the center of a yellow-white pus plug. This is Staphylococcus aureus infected lesion characteristics. Ulceration after discharge pus, abscess gradually by the new fibrous tissue repair and healing.


boil the early symptoms?

1. redness, swelling, heat, pain summary, cylindrical cone.

2. inflammation to the development of nodules increases, the pain intensified.

3. A few days later nodules central necrosis, abscess formation, dissolution, soft induration, pain relief, the central pus head most of the self-rupture, discharge pus, inflammation subsided recovery.

4. furuncle usually no obvious symptoms, but if the blood flow occurred in the rich parts of the body resistance weakened, it can cause discomfort, chills, fever, headache and loss of appetite and other symptoms of toxemia.

5. Facial Boil such as intracranial infection, facial swelling and severe, may be associated with chills, fever, headache, sinus infections and other embolization.

boil because of location, severity of different clinical manifestations may vary.

local swelling and pain sclerosis: no systemic symptoms of early disease and more, only infection redness, swelling, pain, range of not more than 2cm in diameter, small nodules gradually enlarged, as papules bulge. A few days later lesions extended about 3 ~ 5cm, nodules gradually softened, the center was white, a slight touch of the fluctuations; then ulceration pus, and the emergence of yellow-white pus plug. Pus bolt off, pus shed, the inflammation subsides and healing. There is no pus boil bolt (the so-called headless boil), since the collapse a bit late, need to find ways to promote its pus discharge (Figure 2 ).

fever, swollen lymph nodes: furuncle serious infection, the local area of ​​the lymph nodes, tenderness, and may be associated with body heat, and sometimes lymph node abscess formation.

nose, upper lip and around (called "dangerous triangle") of the surface boil, add or pushed in touch, the bacteria via the angular vein, ophthalmic vein into the brain, causing intracranial suppurative infection. At this point may have fever, headache, vomiting, consciousness disorders.

early follicular redness, swelling, heat, pain, induration. After the white purulent center, there is volatility. May be associated with systemic fever, elevated white blood cell count and differential count.


boil ate?

therapeutic side:

1. composed of: a single head of garlic, honey, 9 grams. Usage: pound evenly wrap the affected area.

2. consists of: single head of garlic amount. Usage: Peel and slice into 2 to 3 mm, with the first affected area with warm salt water when dry wash, and then sticking garlic, and gently massage the 10 to 20 minutes, 2 or 3 times a day, 2 3 There is no more. Indications: Boil, folliculitis. Note: In severe cases, such as local irritation may reduce the massage time, a serious condition should be added to serve anti-inflammatory drugs.

3 . composed of: tea 2 grams of dried honeysuckle 1 gram. Usage: boiling water 6 minutes after each meal drink in a cup. Indications: Boil, exogenous heat.

4. composed of: fresh Malan first 100 grams, the amount of liquor. Usage: Add a little salt before blindly smashed wine Ban Cheng paste, coating the surface of the skin furuncle carbuncle. Indications: furuncle, carbuncle.

5. Composition: rosin 10 grams of white wine. Usage: rosin research to fine tune white wine into a paste, resisting heat, wrap the affected area after dissolution, for the degree of responsibility to cover all of the above and then covered with wax paper and tape securely, to enhance efficacy, can drop a few drops of wine, rosin to keep moist. Indications: furuncle, carbuncle, folliculitis.

6. smashed topical papaya leaves, swollen boil carbuncle treatment drug.

7. fresh peach leaf, plug smashed the lesion, treatment of nasal furuncle.

8. rhizome or fresh banana leaves smashed Jiao Zhi, coating the surface of the skin, cure carbuncles, boils, swelling.

9. almond powder with sesame oil paint, heat treatment boil.

10. Purple cane coal deposit of the skin, powder, paint the affected area or sesame oil dressing, boil carbuncle treatment, stomatitis , eczema.

11. raw taro add a little salt, smashed drunk wrap the affected area twice a day replacement, bones can cure pain, swelling of unknown drugs, pediatric head hot boil, finger boil.

12. raw loofah (or leaf), smashed juice, coated surface of the skin, soak sore treatment days, yellow water sores, heat boils, urticaria .

13. mung bean sugar kelp: seaweed 60 grams, shredded, green beans, 150 grams, with the soup, add brown sugar to taste food. There Sedative, diuretic, soft-kin, Phlegm, scattered gall tumor effect. For hypertension, beriberi edema, neck lymphadenopathy, simple goiter, prickly heat boils hot summer day in children poison, phlegm cough embolism.

14. yi melon soup: melon (not peeled) 500-600 g, yi 50-100 grams of soup. Can be flavored with sugar or salt, on behalf of the tea used, heat, hot weather, diuretic, dehumidification effect. Drugs for Rush boils, eczema athlete's foot, yellow urine deficient.

15. Daozhi raw turnip, vinegar and rub the affected area transfer, heat treatment boil.

16. green beans 30 grams of powder, each 10 grams, water delivery service, boils cure breast swelling and pain.

17. failure to adopt the open rose 3 - 5 朵 wash, add water, two pregnant, suffering from a cup of low heat, ice sugar 30 grams, made of rose soup, until the temperature dose, to cure blood stasis amenorrhea, boils Chung pain, traumatic swelling and pain.

18. boils and pus ulceration of the skin sore or eczema, rinse with water, tea, allow the wound clean and promote healing.

19. a white sweet potato, peeled and chopped, smashed, can also be added with the same amount of fresh Houttuynia smashed, spreads in the affected area, apply to the local heating that line replace (about two three hours long), and even apply a few days more, boils cure mastitis.

20. soybeans amount, turn on the water immersed soft, add a little alum were smashed drunk, external surface of the skin, swollen boils boil treatment.

21. adzuki beans with water until soft, mash with water or vinegar, or honey or egg amount, into a paste, external surface of the skin, cure mumps, hot boil.

22. Kapok 30 - 50 grams of sugar amount, fry a bowl with water and drink two bowls and a half. Favorable moisture, heat effect. For enteritis, urethritis, eczema, summer boil embolism.

23. fresh buckwheat leaves 60 grams, Shuijianbi day one; or fried yellow noodles with the vinegar into a paste, applied to the lesion, sooner or later be replaced. Governance sore, swollen boils, erysipelas, mastitis, and swelling of unknown drugs.

appropriate patients to eat what?

1, edible grapes plus zinc salt or zinc, other foods such as soy, sunflower seeds, wheat bran, yeast, brown sugar and so on.

2, Yi Shi taste light, the cold food, such as Malan head, purslane, melon, red and white radish, bitter gourd, sponge gourd, mung bean, red bean, lily, chrysanthemum brain and celery.

patients unfit to eat what?

not eat ginger, pepper and other spicy foods , as well as mustard, yellow croaker, shrimp, crab, chicken head, goose, Zhu Tourou so fat objects.

should avoid fried foods and meat, edible oil cans.

data only refer to the specific, please ask a doctor.


how to prevent boils?

boil is born of acute suppurative superficial skin disorders, widely available health, children, young people more common. "Surgical management case" that: "boil persons, birth processes, floating red rootless feet, swollen found in the skin, only the width of an inch, there is less pain, a few days later Microsoft, thin peel, the beginning of the blue water, the latter from breaking the pus out of. "The disease occurs in the summer and autumn, protruding roots shallow, swelling potential limitations, lift the red pain, mostly in the range of about 3cm, easily swollen, easy to collapse, Yi Lian. Early can be divided into a head, without the first two kinds of general light and easy to cure the symptoms, so the saying goes, "no boil the size of a pus like." ;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; But also due to the formation of improper treatment or care "mole cricket boils," or repeated seizures, lack of disunion. Multiple furunculosis ", is difficult to cure.


boil precautions before treatment?

attention to the skin clean, timely replacement of underwear and avoid skin injuries, especially in the summer, to bathe, wash your hair, hair, changing clothes, nails, children in particular should pay attention. With honeysuckle and wild chrysanthemum Jiantang tea. Boil the surrounding skin should be kept clean and coated with 70% alcohol to prevent infection spread to nearby hair follicles.

boil Chinese medicine treatment methods

total boil caused by the toxic heat treatment to detoxify the basic principles.

A Differential Treatment:

1. Heat toxin Accumulation card: lesion processes, such as cone, burning pain, or fever, thirst, tongue pink, yellow fur, rapid pulse. Detoxification. Flavors disinfection decoction.

2. Shushi heat Melancholia: seen in summer and autumn, the affected area, such as agglomeration cone, single or multiple, burning pain, chest tightness, anorexia, deficient urination, red tongue, greasy or yellowish, veins slippery. Qingshu dampness, detoxification swelling. Qingshu Decoction.

3. Is virtual evil love cards: distributed in the body, local color dark red, pus scarce, one after another, delayed healing, with fever, irritability, thirst, or fatigue, limb soft, red tongue thin yellow, rapid pulse. Righting detoxification. Liu Wei Di Huang Decoction.

Second, external treatment and other treatment:

1. The beginning of detoxification should be swelling, moderate to henbane, water reconcile, wrap the affected area. Or wishful golden powder for external application. Or green cream Waicha.

2. Pus, the clip bolt out the pus.

3. Unhealed after the collapse, sores can be a little ninety-one Dan to drugs or drug line twist into sores, topical berberine gauze.

4. Oral Meihuadianshe Dan, Niuhuangjiedu, Fang Feng Tong Sheng Wan, Liushen other medicine.

5. Unilateral prescription: Silver Flower 30g, licorice 10g, decoction, on behalf of the tea.

Western boil treatment

1. Local treatment, such as heat, physical therapy, 10% ichthyol coated ointment. Facial Boil should rest in bed should not squeeze or prick Boil, so as not to spread to the brain.

2. Swelling or have a large range of obvious symptoms, should give systemic antibiotics (third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics).

3. The formation of abscess, incision and drainage should be timely but should be avoided Boil the face cut.

(a) treatment

1. The principles of early treatment to promote inflammation subsided, after early drain purulent pus; timely elimination of systemic adverse reactions.

2. Local treatment

(1) Physical therapy: early, ultraviolet micro-irradiation, can promote local anti-inflammatory, to prevent proliferation. Swelling stage, the selection of FM, infrared and other heat, promote Boil liquid. 2 to 3 times / d, 20 ~ 30min / times.

(2) Drug eraser: 0.5% povidone-iodine scrub, the drug not only for skin irritation, and the role of long-lasting, no pigmentation. Can also be used erythromycin, tetracycline ointment.

(3) topical cream: local swelling and a small pustules, use ichthyol, wishful golden powder, Gyokuro powder and so on.

(4) incision and drainage: Boil into pus, nodules soften, a sense of volatility, you can make a small incision drainage or fire needle drainage. Taboo squeeze purulent lesions.

(5) to keep local clean and dry: adhere to local skin cleaning, daily showers are the best conditions. Young children with skin, topical lip after taking a bath in summer, to avoid the formation of multiple Boil.

3. Systemic treatment usually does not require systemic treatment of boils. But facial boils or accompanied by chills, fever, headache, general malaise, etc., should be given antibiotics. Clinical observations and experimental results show that the efficacy of penicillin, cephalothin, cefazolin and amikacin better effect.

(B) the prognosis

generally good prognosis after active treatment, without sequelae.


boil should be how?

1. Peripheral blood

(1) white blood cell count: fever, elevated WBC count may have.

(2) white blood cell count: white blood cell count was elevated often accompanied by increased neutrophils .

2. diabetes check

(1) fasting plasma glucose measurement: two fasting blood glucose were increased, should consider the possibility of diabetes.

(2) glycated serum protein: This clinical trial is not the impact of fluctuations in blood glucose higher than normal to help the diagnosis of diabetes.

(3) glycosylated hemoglobin: glycosylated hemoglobin and blood glucose were positively correlated, and the irreversible reaction. Diabetes is often higher than the normal 2 to 3 times.

3. bacteriologic

(1) bacterial culture: the multiple, repeated infections, abscesses can be extracted directly pus for bacterial culture, positive results will help the diagnosis of pathogens.

(2) drug susceptibility testing: bacterial culture in the pus, while line drug susceptibility testing can provide the scientific basis of clinical drug treatment.


boil diseases easily confused?

1. Multiple sweat gland abscesses are summer disease, more common in infants and young children and frail mother's head, forehead, etc .. Lesions of multiple subcutaneous abscesses. Surface tenderness, inflammation lighter. No pus bolt, left scars. Usually accompanied by a lot of prickly heat. Generally known as prickly heat poison. It was also known as pseudo furunculosis (Pseudofurunculosis).

2. Hidradenitis suppurativa common in young women, lesions of the skin induration. Subcutaneous abscess formation, followed by skin redness, swelling, heat, pain, ulceration scarring. Lesions occur in the armpits, groin, genital and perianal, umbilical, etc.

3. acne acne mild infection, red, swollen, painful, but the disease is small, the top a little bit like creamy.

4. sebaceous cysts sebaceous cyst infection are redness, swelling, pain, but the previous round has been painless mass over an extended period , the epidermis as usual.

5. carbuncle carbuncle with redness, swelling, pain, but there are several hair follicle infection, lesions larger than the boil.


hump-related diseases

juvenile osteochondrosis of vertebral osteoporosis youth sexual hump sore scoliosis ankylosing spondylitis vitamin D deficiency disease

more back symptoms

small blisters appear back back pain back spasms, back pain does not have subtle linen spine back pain sinus pain Road with sensory ataxia spinal nerve root damage spinal cord hemisection syndrome, spinal cord lesions of hemorrhagic infiltration of the spinal cord injury spinal cord infarction, cauda equina involvement across the spinal cord within the spinal cord gliosis in the spinal cord anterior horn of the spinal cord lesion cavity formed spinal thalamic tract compression

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