Spinel is composed of Mg-Al oxide minerals, because it contains the elements of magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese, etc., they can be divided into a variety, such as aluminum spinel, iron spinel, zinc spinel manganese tip spar, chrome spinel. Because it contains different elements, different spinel can have different colors, such as between the magnesium spinel in red, blue, green, brown or colorless; zinc spinel was dark green; iron spinel black and so on. Spinel was a hard, glassy octahedral particles and block. They appear in igneous rocks, granitic pegmatite, and metamorphic limestone. Some transparent and beautiful colors of spinel can be used as gemstones, some iron magnetic material. Use artificial means to create more than 200 spinel varieties.
Introduction Spinel (Spinel)
spinel chemical molecular structure
chemical formula is (Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn) (Al, Cr, Fe) 2O4
components in complex, including aluminum spinel and chrome spinel subfamily. Iron spinel subfamily is opaque magnetite, hematite. Most of the spinel is spinel subfamily, including Mg2 + and Fe2 + can be mixed.
crystal system: the case of equiaxed
crystal habit: often has octahedral crystal shape, sometimes octahedron and rhombic dodecahedron, cube into poly shape
cleavage: no cleavage
Fracture: conchoidal fracture
Luster: glassy luster to Asia Diamond gloss
Transparency: transparent to opaque
Refractive index: 1.718, with trace elements and change the maximum to 2.000 unparalleled refraction
gloss: body of homogeneous, isotropic
Dispersion: 0.020 medium dispersion
absorption spectrum: red spinel color caused by chromium, with a typical spectrum in the red region 686nm, 675nm visible two main absorption line, and sometimes may be associated with other absorption lines, for a long time up to 8 Green Zone and Purple District general absorption; blue spinel because of the existence of low-cost Fe, and shows the complex spectrum of
color: color and its rich, red, blue, green, purple, orange, orange, black
luminance: red or pink spinel in the long, dark red fluorescence under short wave; blue because Fe, fluorescent
inclusion: often with negative crystal package was spinel octahedron-shaped columnar zircon and apatite solid inclusions and more gas liquid or octahedral body. Sometimes zircon surrounding the discoid stress cracks.
the shape of cut: no optical effect of the gem is generally ground into a carved face
special optical effect: the the Starlight effect (radiance or six shot), color effects. Relatively few
Density: 3.60 (+0.10, -0.03) g/cm
Origin: Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Thailand and China, Henan, Hebei, Fujian, Xinjiang, Yunnan
the main synthesis methods: flame melting method
synthetic spinel identification methods: RI-1.727 (single refraction, relatively stable) blue spinel with typical cobalt spectrum, three strong absorption bands in the red, orange, green zone, by Cobalt red color caused by blue spinel filter, the internal bending visible growth lines, bubbles form was the umbrella, stretched like or different shape.
spinel family of minerals formed in the molten magma intrusion in nature formed by contact metamorphism of impure limestone or dolomite. Some appear in the Al-rich magmatic rocks. Gem spinel is mainly magnesium aluminate spinel is a Mg-Al oxides. The crystal form of the octahedron and the octahedron and rhombic dodecahedron poly shape. Color, colorful, colorless, pink, red, purple, light purple, blue, purple, blue, yellow, brown. Varieties of spinel is divided in accordance with the color, red, orange, violet, blue spinel. Shiny, transparent glass. Conchoidal fracture. Red fluorescent pink and red spinel in the long and short-wave UV. Feature
spinel with similar gemstones, synthetic Spinel difference. Red spinel and ruby are very similar, the difference is: ruby dichroism, uneven color, silk-like inclusions. Spinel is a homogeneous body, exactly the same color, color uniformity, solid inclusions of the octahedron.
blue, gray and blue, blue, purple, green spinel and sapphire are easily mixed, the difference is: sapphire dichroism ribbon straight, silk-like inclusions and the twin plane. The two gems, density, refractive index, polarized light are different.
synthetic spinel color rich and gaudy, homogeneous inclusions small, occasionally curved growth lines, high refractive index is 1.727. Red synthetic spinel and more fake ruby red, blue Spinel mostly brilliant blue. Natural spinel difference according to the characteristics of the internal inclusions and synthetic spinel.
Maintenancesimple conservation methods
1. thorough cleaning France: warm water after a small bowl or cup dress Imperial keep the salt dissolved, each 10 grams per soak for 24 hours. Finally, a soft, lint-free cloth for drying can. Yu Shou salt cleaning spinel impact of manual processing, make manual processing part of the show. Does not affect the natural part. The occurrence of every month to keep salt cleaning spinel, can eliminate the ring on the dead skin tissue removed from the fungal growth, prevention of skin diseases
2 cold water method with a small bowl or cup to keep the Royal salt in a bowl, spinel immersed in water for about 30 minutes, and then use a small brush, in the spinel gently scrub around, waving while in the water, and drying can be out with a paper towel.
quick cleaning method: to buy a little imperial keep salt, spar buried purification. Each laying takes 24 hours, so there is a drawback is that if manual processing manual processing of the the spinel Royal to keep the salt will make part of the show. So if manual processing of spinel Yu Shou salt.
legend · spinel sparse, and now more than 5ct good texture rare. But there had been some history of the famous ruby, now appears to be spinel, a larger weight. Spinel gemstone treasures, weighing more than 100ct.
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