Green onions, onions a ordinary green onions, shallots, onions Hu and F, onions can be divided into four types. Zhangqiu is China's largest green onions planting, processing and export base, the main planting varieties of green onions. Green onions, spicy, slightly warm, with a published yang; the role of detoxification seasoning. Mainly used in the cold cold, chills, fever, headache, nasal congestion, chill abdominal pain, dysentery, diarrhea, parasitic internal resistance, milk barrier, and two will be unfavorable. Green onions contain a volatile oil, the oil component of allicin, but also contain within the diene sulfide, calcium oxalate. In addition, it also contains fat, carbohydrates, carotene, vitamin B, C and niacin, calcium, magnesium, iron and other ingredients.
Introductiongreen onions, dà cōng
Scientific name: Allium fistulosum L.var.giganteum Makino,
alias: onions, shallots, onion seasons, do dishes
Allium Liliaceae perennial herb onion stems and leaves, the upper blue onion leaves, the lower part of the white light blue.
originated in Siberia, China's long history of cultivation, widely distributed, Shandong, Hebei, Henan and other provinces for the important place of origin. Green onions cold and heat resistance, adaptability, and the four seasons can be listed. Ordinary green onions, originating in China, and throughout the north and south. Leaves round and hollow sheath at the base to hold the synthetic "fake stem", and can eat young leaves and light blue.
is divided into two types according to the length of the light blue. Green onions plant is tall, light blue, white and sweet, more cultivation in the north.
green onions is the essential thing in the day-to-day in the kitchen the north to the green onions, it can be used for the seasoning of products, but also to combat the epidemic can be described as Vegetable medicine.
green onions and more used to fry cook; prolific onion south, is a commonly used spices, also known as scallions are generally eaten raw or mixed with cold cuts with. Ordinary green onions: variety, good quality, large area under cultivation. The length according to their light blue, and a long light blue and a short light blue points. Long light blue classes spicy hypertrophy, Liaoning cover flat, green onions, tall white, Shaanxi Huaxian Valley onions and other well-known varieties; short light blue class light blue short and thick, succulent, well-known varieties Zhangqiu chicken onions, Hebei leaf onions and so on. Shallot: leaves thick, light blue, pure white, tillers and strong, light spicy and good quality.
onions with Lifei Yang, sweating of the table through milk to stop bleeding, and pain healing effect for dysentery, abdominal pain, arthritis, constipation embolism. The onions have a unique Hot & Spicy, from volatile sulfide an onion pigment, can stimulate saliva and gastric juice secretion, increase appetite. Onion contains malic acid and sugar phosphates can be excited nerves, improve and promote circulation, relieving heat. Eat onions may reduce cholesterol accumulation in the vessel wall.
varietiesFloor onions: white and sweet, the tillers strong, onion leaves short, poor quality.
Shallot: mostly cultivated in the south, the quality is soft and tasteless, fresh onion leaves mainly. Green onions in accordance with the growth of the length of time there in the northern claw onions, to claw onion, green onion, modified onions, ditches, onions, shallots, old onions and other varieties.
claw onions (also known as yellow onions): small trees of the old onion leaves Qi left, Tuen Mun in the greenhouse pond long as the leaves golden, stem white, taste fresh.
to claw onions: the first year of growth is not enough maturity to stay next year's spring re-listed on onions. Stem white, leaf green, leaf thickness, raw spicy.
onion: the root of white, stem green, leaf green, raw sweet in April.
improved onion: the end of the fall of onion seedlings after transplanting grow into the Shallot listed over; improved onion will be listed; to fill the gap. Improved grape flavor is spicy, leaf length, dark green leaves.
ditch onions: bar and coarse stems and white, but Elymus inedible.
shallots: is listed after the frost an old onion and this onion planting is generally more dense growth is not on the geotechnical or less on the soil.
old onion: long growing season, trees robust. The best of old onions chicken onion, coarse roots and upward gradually thin, the shape of chicken, white skin, Cishi winter storage will not be hollow, fragrance should do the seasoning to supply the market year after the frost.
eating techniques h2>
earth to prevent onion stalk lodging, softening the fake stem, is an important part of green onions cultivation management. Plants began to flourish and grow, false stem height over the ground plane, combined with top dressing for Yong soil Pinggou. When the false stem above the ground about 10cm earth. Two the Changbai type varieties of earth, false stems buried 30-40cm. Short white type and chicken varieties earth false stems buried about 20cm. During the growing season there is no earth, plants upright emissions can be received after softening bed, from the false stem gap fill sand soil bed kept moist, the upper anti-rain. 25 days of the warm season and cold season about 40 days to complete softening. This method soften the loss, but the cultivation period can be high density, easily won a high yield.
green onions on the temperature to adapt to a wide range, from seedling to bolting before can be harvested for human consumption. In addition to nurture the full growth of the green onions in the fall is still around other season cultivation, harvesting onion (nutrition body is not fully grown into the onions).
Seed Collecting: adult and semi adult two kinds of seed production way. Adult seed production: seed strains autumn full grown green onions, and ease of strict selection, but the high cost of the reproduction of the original species; semi-adult seed production: summer planting culture as half the growth of strong age plants for seed strains before planting winter , low cost, cycle time a year. Green onions easily cross-pollinated species isolated seed production.
early winter harvest green onions, received the shaver dry finishing bundles, emissions in the shade shallow trench. Below 0 ℃, low temperature storage for more than 100 days during storage to keep the subject of onions tied mild freeze, to avoid repeated thawing. Air humidity should be around 80%, covering the grass thatch moisturizing rain. The scallions no dormancy characteristics. False stems can be stored at room temperature, although a long time, but a great loss.
management essentialsAfter many years of field experience proved that in order to green onions high-yield income, after the beginning of autumn must pay close attention to three points, in order to ensure The scallion robust growth, root stout and powerful, leaves agricultural green stem length and Jingzhuang.
First, timely fertilization watering
beginning of autumn after the plants grow faster, topdressing attack foliar fertilizer, composting of manure applied per acre of 1500 kg to 2000 kg, superphosphate 20 kg to 25 kg, to promote the growth of leaves. Enter the light blue was growing vigorously, dew, green onions yield formation of a critical period should be combined with watering dressing "attack trees fertilizer twice, each Mushi 15 kg to 20 kg of urea, potassium sulfate 10 kg to 15 kg, and threw between the lines. Shallow cultivator, watering, generally 2 -3 times to the water to dry soil on the ridge, trench soil moist principle.
Second, timely earth
scallions growth faster, rely on timely earth many times in order to make onions grow fast and thick, can be divided into 4 -5 times earth, each earth is a high degree of training in the onions heart can not be buried Lord. The earth too shallow is not conducive to the onion stems and white body, rapid growth, the earth caused by too much bad heart, the formation of the cut or the leaves turn yellow.
timely pest control
green onions pests and diseases downy mildew, black mold, purpura, leaf miner, root maggots. Per acre with a new lipid membrane emulsion of 300 g, 230-250 kg watered, uniform spray intervals of 7-10 days, spray a total of 2-3 times the effective prevention of onion downy mildew. Black mold, sprayed with 0.1% copper sulfate or 1% of lime, or 0.1% potassium permanganate solution of 50 kg. Peliosis, sprayed with 80% Zineb 0.5% aqueous solution or 50% of the A care 0.1% aqueous solution or copper sulphate, lime and water, 1:1:200 times the proportion of the preparation of Bordeaux mixture spray 50 kg, the amount of acres. Root maggot pest mu with methamidophos powder 5 kg or 2.5% trichlorfon powder 3.5 kg and -4.5 kg or 2.5 kg phoxim granules is applied to the territories. Spider mite, available light spirit, mites 3000 times times -3000, -3500 times or 2500 times red and white mites must Prevention.
beginning of autumn after an important period of vegetable growth. The center of gravity of the green onions field management is to promote root, strong trees and earth to soften, strengthen the management of fertilizer to create a suitable environment for the formation of light blue, thereby increasing the yield and quality of the green onions.
conventional storagegreen onions hi low temperature, dry environment for storage of the optimum temperature of -4 ℃, relative humidity of 70% -80 %.
1. Trenching and storage: green onions harvested in situ after drying for several hours, remove the soil on the roots, remove disease, injury strains, and bind them in bundles of about 10 kg, in a well ventilated place to pile up about six days; green onions appearance of water completely dried. Choose to back air ventilation at the trenching from the 50 to 70 cm. Ditch humidity can be poured permeable. Until all the water seepage under the bundle of onions suffer a bundle to be placed in the storage trench strict light blue section, and then buried with soil. Before the arrival of the cold, straws or corn straw can be covered. This can be stored to March.
2. Buried in storage by drying: the use of such methods, the selection of the tied bundle of green onions on a shady corner or cold room, the bottom layer of wet soil, the onions around the wet soil Pearson buried to the onion leaves at can. Buried in the outdoor, stamped with grass thatch cold before the onset of frost.
3. Heel in storage: the plains in the hospital or to dig a shallow pit, the beginning of winter before the harvest of green onions, remove injured, diseased, and bind them in small bundles and heel in the pit with earth, burying the light blue part of the onion root. Buried good to use flood irrigation to increase soil moisture, promote germination of new roots, slowing the onion leaves dry to extend the preservation time.
4. Dry storage: suitable period of harvest of green onions to dry 2 to 3 days, shaking the soil off the root, remove disease, injury strains, wait seven days to dry, tied about 1 kg of onions, root down, one to suffer a placed in a dry and ventilated place. Attention to prevent heat and moisture during storage.
5. Frozen storage: green onions after harvest, dry a few days, be seed wilting, remove injured, diseased, and shake off the soil, and bind them in small bundles on the availability or outdoor temperature change is small, cool, dry place, without any insulation measures, any of its natural frozen. To the winter storage of the green onions are all frozen, until the weather gets warmer, green onions, natural thawing. The saying goes: "not afraid of cold, afraid to move," Do not move, green onions in the thaw period, otherwise thaw easily cause rot.
6. Exposed to winter storage: the cultivation of green onions to the harvest season without harvesting, green onions ridge before the land freezes, earth, thick earth dug listing at any time thereafter as needed.
7. Short-term preservation and storage: Yin hanging against the wall place to dig a 20 cm deep, flat-bottomed pit, Bottom Shop 0.3 cm thick sand around the pit, surrounded by brick pit the size of the storage and. Green onions after harvest or buy back, the first in the pit water 6 to 7 cm deep water until the water seepage under the immediate green onions into the pit, pour some water every 3 to 4 days within the four corners of the pit, so that can be fresh one month or so, the leaves of the same yellow, quit, you can be listed for sale.
autumn and winter green onions preservation methods(1) possession of France, in the open air or shed, indoor, with a wooden or steel barricaded storage rack. Dry harvest of green onions and bind them in bundles of 7 to 10 kg, in turn stacked on the shelf, leaving the middle of the gap ventilation, to prevent rot. The open frame of Tibet, the application of plastic film covering the anti-rain and snow. During storage on a regular basis to open bundle of checks in a timely manner to remove the heat deterioration of the plant.
(2) ground storage method, the ground on the leeward at Shop 3 to 4 cm thick sand, dry-strapped green onions secret password on the sand, root down, wide ~~ 1.5 m. Training code good around the green onions roots 15 cm of sand. On the cover straws, plastic sheeting rain.
(3) ditch possession of France, in the cool air deepened 20 to 30 cm wide and 50 to 70 cm in shallow trench. Selected, dried green onions and bind them in bundles of about 10 kg. Trench filling enough water, bundles of green onions Zairu trench, Yan light blue part buried into the ground, surrounded by corn stalks around the circle, in order to facilitate ventilation and heat dissipation. Temperature decreases, stamped with straws or corn stalks.
(4) cache of France, harvesting, drying for several days, green onions and bind them in bundles of about 10 kg, vertical emission in dry, sunny rain place to dry. When the temperature dropped below 0 ℃, storage pit entry. Cavities to maintain a low temperature of 0 ℃, pay attention to the moisture of the heat-resistant.
(5) cold storage storage method, pests and diseases, disability, green onions and bind them in bundles of about 10 kg load box or basket, put in freezer stacking storage. Bank to maintain a 0 ~ l ℃, relative humidity 80% ~ 85%. During storage to regular inspection, timely removed the rotten green onions.The
(6) micro-frozen storage method, dug 20 cm deep in the east-west wall of the north side, 1 to 2 meters wide, shallow trench. Will be owned by the drying of the green onions into 10 kg bundles vertical deposited in the trench. Storage of the early green onions and bound the Ministry to open a week of turning a scallion leaves all dry. Cold weather, the large light blue micro-frozen earth to green onions at the top covered with straws.
-season green onions
selection of speciesplanting-season listing of green onions, should choose cold, bolting resistance, heat resistance, disease resistance and quality The scallion species. Such as Zhangqiu Changbai green onions, Chinese giant onion excellent strains and other species.
nurturing seedlings. Nursery and planting timing: the first harvest, the end of June to early July, nursery, planting in September, the second year in April; the second crop in mid-September, nursery, planting the second year in March and April, 8 listing in early September.
2. Nursery choice: two stubble nursery almost all the time in the rainy season, so the flat land, the terrain is slightly higher, drought can be poured over floods row 3 green onions, onions, leeks, garlic and other lily Section plots of vegetables.
3. Shizujifei: short green onions seedling roots buried shallow, the ability to absorb soil nutrients, in order to nurture the seedlings, must be applied to foot the full maturity of organic fertilizer and a certain amount of phosphorus and potassium. The specific method is that the former arable land, per acre facilities composting scraps of manure (chicken, ducks, sheep and strangers except manure) 5000 ~ 6000 kg, the entire plot. Applicator three elements of the sulfuric acid fertilizer before planting, 25 kg.
4. Precision farming a small rake, ridge the Zuoqi: In order to prevent soil pests harm seedlings, later, the cast of the organic fertilizer applicator poison bait once. Per acre wheat 5 kg fried yellow, and then mix with 250 ml of phoxim diluent, closed boring cover three hours Hou Sabu ground, in turn buried with organic fertilizer once, you can kill a variety of soil pests. Plowing the land, rake thin real harrow, leveling.
the Zuoqi before the first to the side of a good watering with ditches, and then Zuoqi. Plot clear width of 1 to 1.2 m and furrow ridge width of 20 to 23 cm high 8 to 10 cm (step real). Furrow do, the first applicator Qinei per acre, three-element compound fertilizer (N, P, K each containing 15%) of 25 kg, hoe through the brush flat, and then broadcast the hands.
5. Sown per acre with 3 to 4 kg of two sowing methods, can have either.
hug kinds: leveling Qimian on sow the seed evenly, sprinkle after rake makes a hug again, the seeds with soil full blending and shallow in the earth, and then poured water.
cover species: plot leveled with a flat shovel to clear a 1 cm thick Qimian fine wet soil, again Qimian leveling.
Watering: the pending Qinei water 6 to 7 cm deep, stop watering. Qimian out water seepage dry after sowing, after sowing cover the fine soil, about 1 cm thickness. Cover broadcast seedling rooting depth, root seedlings more than drought-resistant, robust seedlings. Shade anti-storm nursery can take, the better. To take advantage of the moisture after sowing manual spraying of herbicides.
6. Seedling stage management
Qimiao to five leaf stage, 1 or 2 times thinning. Seedlings from 1 to 1.5 cm. Combination of thinning, removal of weeds not killed by the herbicide. Control water, not dry without water, in order to reduce the occurrence of the "incidence" and "yellow seedlings". If the seedling growth, thin, and can be combined with water appropriate dressing. Urea per acre Debris 7.5 kg to 10 kg, applied once every 20 days Chong, Shi Chong, a total of 2 times. Growth encountered during overcast and rainy weather, should pay attention to the prevention and control of downy mildew and white blight, to ensure strong seedlings.
timely plantingsummer-sown green onions in mid-September, autumn green onions in the following year in March and April planting. Row spacing of 80 cm plant spacing of 1.5 to 2 cm, the ditching planting (onions). Colonization before onion seedling strict grading and pharmaceutical processing, to eliminate the root maggots (larvae of species of flies), to ensure that all seedlings. In practice, the onion seedling roots immersed in 1.8% Ai Fuding solution diluted 4000-fold, or diluted 800 to 1000 times the phoxim solution or cypermethrin solution was diluted 3000 times in 2 ~ 3 minutes. Open trench planting is not too deep nor too shallow, too deep, dead soil unfavorable root growth; the earth is too shallow, more difficult. Trench planting is a good start, the new virtual earth turned up a little repression, an overwhelming onion seedlings to prevent future landslides. Trench onion seedlings row to the amount of fertilizer are they fat. Are they fat good fat to the maturity of the barn. 5000 kg per mu plus 25 kg of three elements after the application of the fertilizer mix. Combination of open next Erdaogou, are they fat above the appropriate overlying layer of fine wet soil. Thickness are they fat soil is not buried onions heart (growing point) degrees, a little repression ends. Just planting onion seedlings is strictly prohibited watering to prevent steep the root cause of a large number of dead seedling. Rainstorm to do everything possible to row a net onion to water, Huanmiao, case may be appropriate to drought watering. the management of
field-season green onions after planting, a time when the temperature most suitable for the the scallions growth period, Miao a Huanguo Lai, will grow rapidly. Therefore, fertilizer and water management is an important part of high-yield, high-quality. Who required adequate facilities are they fat, the growth medium will not Quefei before, as long as the soil moisture is appropriate to ensure a rapid robust growth. Soil temperature is maintained at about 70% of the saturated water is appropriate. Drought is water, poured upon timely Row crop cultivators, in order to facilitate soil moisture and increase soil permeability, and promote root development and improve the ability to absorb water and fertilizer.
light blue of the length determined by how much of the earth's. General-season green onions, earth 3 to 4 times, in order to ensure that the light blue 70 to 80 cm in length. The thickness of each earth buried onions heart. Winter-season cultivation of onion, a thick earth before the earth frozen to minimize the amount of the drying of the leaves, the accumulation of nutrition to ensure that early onset of winter.
With the accelerated growth rate and leaves the large number of plants on soil nutrient demand a sharp rise. In order to ensure high yield, top-dressing must be timely. Top dressing can be combined with water. Topdressing urea 15 to 20 kg per acre. The ditch along the applicator, Shi shallow hoeing buried fertilizer, to prevent watering, fertilizer concentrate with water to the water head, to achieve the objective of balanced fertilization. Best Applying a certain amount of phosphorus, potash, have a significant effect on onion yield and improve the quality of the green onions.
therapeutic efficacyantipyretic, expectorant: onions stimulate the body to sweat glands, the role of transpiration cooling; Scallion can stimulate the upper respiratory tract, so that phlegm easy to spit up.
antibacterial, anti-virus: onions contains allicin, has a significant role against bacteria, viruses, in particular, the inhibition of Shigella and fungal skin stronger.
anti-cancer: chives contain pectin, can significantly reduce the incidence of colon cancer, anti-cancer effects; garlic inside the onion capsaicin can inhibit the growth of cancer cells; onions also contain selenium, can reduce the nitrite content in the gastric juice, have a role in prevention of gastric cancer and a variety of cancers.
promote digestion and absorption: raw onions, like onion, containing allyl sulfide, such substances will stimulate the secretion of gastric juice, and helps to improve appetite. And contain vitamin B1 content of foods with higher intake will promote food starch and sugar quality will become heat, you can recover from fatigue.
improve blood circulation: green onions are rich in vitamin C, a relaxation of small blood vessels, promote blood circulation, prevents high blood pressure due to dizziness, the brain to remain flexible, and prevention of Alzheimer's.
strong physique: green onions can reduce bad cholesterol accumulation, and therefore regularly eat onions, even more than fat body fat, their cholesterol is not increased, and strong physique.
volatile oil of green onions and spicy elements, as getting rid of Xingshan odor Atsumi greasy dishes in a special aroma, with the same fresh mushrooms can also play a role in promoting blood circulation.
onion leaf part than the light blue section contains more vitamin A, C and calcium, therefore, do not discard.
suitable for a crowdgeneral population can eat.
1. Mental wish
2. Suffering from gastrointestinal diseases ulcer disease should not eat; another onion strong stimulating effect on the sweat glands, body odor in the summer should be Shensi; virtual table, sweating should not eat; excessive consumption of onions will damage eyesight.
1. Daily consumption of onions, for health. The onions can be eaten raw, can be cold when the dishes for human consumption, as a seasoning used for dirty, fishy smell of mutton, and other odor dishes, soups, there is no smell of dishes, soups from the flavor flavoring role.
2. , Depending on the Ingredients of cut spring onion and diced green onion, blending, are not suitable for frying, deep-fried for too long.
3. Onion leaves are rich in vitamin A should not be lightly thrown away.
4. Onions contain allyl sulfide are volatile, so soak in the water or boiled too long, will it effect the loss.
5. Join miso sauce flame, then sprinkle with chopped green onion, you can make the flavor more palatable and can play the effect of allyl sulfide.
6. Onions together with vitamin B1 content of food intake. Because of the role to eliminate odor, such as pork or lamb with the flavor of the cuisine, be sure to use onions to taste.
nutrients100 grams of nutrients
energy of 23 kcal
vitamin B60.16 mg
1.6 g of protein
0.3 grams of fat
5.8 g carbohydrates
Folic acid 11.5 micrograms
dietary fiber 2.4 g
vitamin A11 micrograms
carotene, 64 micrograms
Thiamine 0.06 mg
riboflavin 0.03 mg
nicotinic acid 0.5 mg
vitamin C3 mg
63 mg of calcium
phosphorus 25 mg
potassium 110 mg
sodium 8.9 mg
The magnesium 16 mg
Iron 0.6 mg
The Zinc 0.29 mg
Selenium 0.21 micrograms
Copper 0.03 mg
Manganese 0.34 mg
folk disease onions therapygreen onions has a therapeutic role everyone knows but no one knows green onions this role?
1. Green onions have a therapeutic role in everyone knows but no one knows green onions this role? Governance rhinitis of onion juice: Take appropriate amount of green onions, go to the root bark, wash, pound drunk, juice (onions the aldicarb better), 3 times a day, every 2 to 3 drops of nasal drops can also be used cotton balls dipped in onion juice, plug in the nostril and back to tampons, no stimulation.
2. The light blue the Governance corn: take good fresh light blue near the roots 1 small pieces, peel the outermost layer of the thin-skinned feet will be washed clean, light blue leather attached to the corn on the wrapped and with a clean white cloth. After a day and night, the tenderness of the affected area will be significantly reduced, and even posted a few days, soft corns, and finally recovered.
3. Onion membrane stop nose bleeding: take fresh onion leaves cut open with a clean cotton ball dipped in rubbing onion leaves endometrial be onion juice Shenshi cotton balls, cotton balls inserted into the bleeding nostril to stop bleeding.
4. Wine onion cure arthritis: take 60 to 120 grams of green onions, ginger 15 to 30 g were chopped, mashed, add the amount of liquor mix, wrap the affected area, the external plastic film covering and tape securely. Dressing 1 a day.
5. Honey onions governance mumps: 100 g light blue wash, pound drunk, adding an appropriate amount of honey into a paste, spread on the plastic film, patching the affected area and tape securely, dressing 1 day, even apply for several days can be more.
6. Onion water to cure hemorrhoids pain: even have light blue 250 grams, plus 1000 ml of water, simmer till 500 ml, when the bath until the water temperature suitable for 1 to 2 times.
Cong Bao beefraw materials: beef, onion, salt, cooking wine, the ginger
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